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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 7

MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) If we only had the verse "In every year and year", I might think that we always read in the month next to Shevat.
(b) If we only had the verse "Hashenis", I would think that this only applied in the 1st 2 years.
1. R. Eliezer Bar R. Yosi uses the verse "Hashenis" as Rav Shmuel Bar Yehuda.
2. (Rav Shmuel Bar Yehuda): At first, Purim was fixed in Shushan; later, in the whole world.
(a) (Rav Shmuel Bar Yehuda): Esther asked the Sages to fix Purim as a Yom Tov.
1. They replied, this will arouse the jealousy of the nations.
2. Esther: This is not a concern, since the story is already part of the Persian/Median chronicles.
(b) Whenever Rav, Rav Chanina, R. Yochanan, and R. Chaviva are taught together in Seder Moed, R. Yonason should be in place of R. Yochanan.
(c) Esther asked the Sages to make Megilas Esther part of Kesuvim.
(d) The Sages answered (verse): "I have written (of the war with Amalek) 3 times (in Shmos, Devarim and Shmuel), it should not be written a 4th time!"
(e) Later, they reconsidered because they found another verse: "Write this as a remembrance in a Safer"
1. "Write this" - the war against Amalek recorded in Shmos and Devarim counts as one time.
2. "A remembrance" - what is recorded in Shmuel.
3. "In a Safer" - Megilas Esther.
(f) R. Eliezer ha'Moda'i learns this way in a Beraisa; R. Yehoshua learns as the initial response of the Sages.
(g) (Rav Yehuda citing Shmuel): If one touches a Megilah, his hands do not become impure (as they do by other Holy Writings).
1. This implies that Shmuel holds that Megilas Esther was not written with Ruach Hakodesh.
2. Question: But Shmuel said that it was said with Ruach Hakodesh!
3. Answer: It was said with Ruach Hakodesh (Divine inspiration) to be read, but not to be written.
(h) Question (Beraisa): R. Meir says that (Bais Hillel and Bais Shamai agree that) Koheles does not make hands impure; they argue by Shir Hashirim;
1. R. Yosi says that Shir Hashirim makes hands impure, they argue by Koheles;
2. R. Shimon says that Koheles is an instance where Bais Shamai are more lenient than Bais Hillel (they say that it does not make hands impure), but Rus, Shir Hashirim and Megilas Esther all make the hands impure.
(i) Answer: Shmuel holds like R. Yehoshua (above, (f), that Megilas Esther should not have been written).
(j) (Beraisa): R. Shimon Ben Menasya says that Koheles does not make hands impure, because it is merely the wisdom of Shlomo;
1. Chachamim say to him: Was this all his wisdom? (verse) - "Shlomo spoke 3000 parables" (so we may assume, he only wrote those said with Ruach Hakodesh); another verse says, "Do not add to his words" (i.e. Hashem's words; only write what was given with Ruach Hakodesh).
2. Question: Why did Chachamim need to bring a 2nd verse?
3. Answer: We might have thought that his parables were not from Hashem, and he may write whichever he desires.
(k) (Beraisa): R. Eliezer says that Megilas Esther was written with Ruach Hakodesh; we know this from the verse, "Haman said in his heart".
1. R. Akiva says that we learn this from the verse "Esther bore grace in the eyes of all that saw her".
2. R. Meir learns from "The matter became known to Mordechai"
3. R. Yosi Ben Dormaskis learns from "They did not stretch their hands on the spoils".
(l) (Shmuel): Better than all these sources is "they fulfilled and accepted" - they fulfilled in Heaven what they accepted below.
(m) (Rava): We may dispel all the proofs, except for that of Shmuel.
1. (R. Eliezer's proof): Haman reasoned that he is most important to the king; since he said to give so much honor, we see that he thought that the king wanted to honor him.
2. (R. Akiva's proof): Perhaps, as R. Elazar said, that Esther appeared to each person as if she was from his nation.
3. (R. Meir's): As R. Chiya Bar Aba said, Bigsan and Teresh were Tarsiyim (and Mordechai understood their language).
4. (R. Yosi Ban Dormaskis'): Perhaps they sent a message.
(n) (Ravina): This is as people say, one sharp pepper is better than a full vessel of gourds. (Shmuel's source, which cannot be rejected).
(o) (Rav Yosef): We may bring a proof from "These days of Purim will not pass from the Jews".
(p) (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): We may prove it from "Their memory will not pass from their seed".
(a) (Rav Yosef): One must give two portions (of food) to a friend, and two gifts to two poor people.
(b) R. Yehuda Nesiah sent a leg of a 3rd-born calf and a barrel of wine to R. Ushiya, who replied, "you have fulfilled on us, our teacher, sending portions to one's friend".

(c) Rabah made Abaye a messenger to give a bag of dates and cup of flour to Mari Bar Mar.
1. Abaye told Rabah: Mari will say, if a farmer will become king (Rav of the city), he still carries his basket on his neck.
(d) Mari made Abaye a messenger to give to Rabah a sack of ginger and a cup of peppers.
1. Abaye told Mari: Rabah will say, I sent to him sweet food, and he sends to me sharp food!
2. (Abaye): When I left Rabah's house, I was satiated; when I reached Mari's house, they served me 60 bowls of 60 types of food, and I ate 60 pieces.
3. The last course was a pot roast; I wanted to eat the plate afterwards!
4. This is as people say: "A poor person is famished and does not know it"; or, "There is room to eat something tasty".
(e) Abaye Bar Avin and R. Chanina Bar Avin used to exchange their meals (to fulfill sending portions to a friend).
(a) Rava: A person is obligated to become drunk on Purim until he does not know to distinguish "cursed is Haman" from "blessed is Mordechai".
(b) Rabah and R. Zeira ate their Purim meal together; Rabah got drunk and slaughtered R. Zeira; the next day, he davened, and restored him to life.
1. The next year, Rabah invited R. Zeira to eat with him again.
2. R. Zeira declined; "miracles do not always happen".
(c) (Rava): One who eats the Purim meal at night did not fulfill the mitzva - the verse says "*days* of festive meals and Simcha".
1. Rav Ashi was by Rav Kahana; he asked why the students were not coming to learn.
2. Rav Kahana: "Perhaps they are busy having the Purim meal".
3. Rav Ashi: "They couldn't have had it at night?"
4. Rav Kahana: "You haven't heard Rava's law (c)?"
5. Rav Ashi learned the law 40 times, and was as secure in it as if it was in his pocket.
(a) Mishnah: The only difference between Shabbos and Yom Tov is preparation of food.
(b) Gemara: We infer, they are the same regarding Makshirim (preliminary preparations).
(c) Our mishan is not like R. Yehuda.
(d) (Beraisa): Mishnah: The only difference between Shabbos and Yom Tov is preparation of food; R, Yehuda permits Makshirim.
1. The first tanna learns from the verse, "it", and not Makshirim.
2. R. Yehuda learns from "for you", for all your needs.
3. Question: What does the first tanna learn from "for you"?
4. Answer: It teaches "and not for idolators; and not for dogs".
5. Question: What does R. Yehuda learn from "it"?
6. Answer: It says, "it"; it also says, "for you". Machshirim which may be done before Yom Tov are forbidden, those which cannot be done before are permitted.
(e) Mishnah: Mishnah: The only difference between Shabbos and Yom Hakipurim is that one who intentionally works on Shabbos is punishable by man (stoning); on Yom Hakipurim, Kares (excision).
(f) Gemara: We infer, there is no difference regarding paying for what one damaged through a Melachah.
(g) Our Mishnah is like R. Nechunya Ben Hakanah.
(h) (Beraisa): R. Nechunya Ben Hakanah treats Yom Hakipurim as Shabbos regarding payment.
1. Just as one is liable to die for breaking Shabbos, and exempt from payment, so too for Yom Hakipurim.
(i) (Mishnah): Anyone punishable by Kares who was lashed is exempted from Kares.
1. R. Chananyah Ben Gamliel learns this from the verse "And was lashed your brother in your eyes" - once he is lashed, he is like your brother.
2. R. Yochanan: The other tannaim argue on R. Chananyah.
3. (Rava): We see this from our Mishnah - it cannot be like R. Chaninah, for he holds that both are punishable by man!
4. (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): One may say that our Mishnah is like R. Yitzchak, who says that there are no lashes for sins with a punishment of Kares.
i. (Beraisa - R. Yitzchak): The Torah mentioned Kares by the sin of incest with one's sister, to teach that the punishment is Kares, and not lashes.
5. (Rav Ashi): Our Mishnah can be like Chachamim that argue on R. Yitzchak - the Mishnah says that the main punishment of Yom Kipur is Kares.
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