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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 5

MEGILAH 2-5 (Elul 27-Rosh Hashanah 5760) - have been dedicated by Dr. Jack and Sarah Dimenstein of Zurich Switzerland. May they be blessed with a year of health and prosperity, physical and spiritual!


(a) (Beraisa ) : Even when villagers read the Megilah early, the festive meal is on the 14th.
(b) (Rav): When the Megilah is read in the proper time, it may be read by an individual; it may be read early only in a minyan.
(c) (Rav Asi argues): A minyan is always required.
1. A case occurred, and Rav acted stringently, as Rav Asi.
2. Question: Did Rav really say that a minyan is not required on the proper day?
3. (Rav Yehudah citing Rav): When Purim falls on Shabbos, Friday is the time.
i. Question: If it falls on Shabbos, Shabbos is the time!
ii. Answer: We must explain Rav Yehudah citing Rav thusly: reading the Megilah not in its time is like reading it in its time - an individual may read! (This is the crux of question 2.)
4. Answer: No, we can explain Rav Yehudah citing Rav as follows: we read on Friday, not as Rebbi who says that we read on Thursday.
(d) (Mishnah): To be considered a city, 10 Batlanim are required. If there are less, it has the law of a village.
(e) The Megilah reading may be advanced but not delayed; the following may be delayed but not advanced:
1. *Eitzei Kohanim* (when certain families would donate wood for the altar).
2. Tisha b'Av.
3. *Chagigah* (A Shlamim sacrifice offered on each festival).
4. *Hakhel* (reading the Torah in the presence of all of Israel on the 2nd day of Sukkos).
(f) Even though the Megilah reading may be advanced, when it is read early, there are no restrictions on eulogies or fasts on the early day; one may fulfill the Mitzvah of gifts to the poor on the early day.
(g) (R. Yehudah) In a place where villagers do not enter on Monday and Thursday, the Megilah is only read on the proper day.
(h) (Beraisa ) The 10 Batlanim are people that are always in shul.
1. Question: Why may we not read later?
2. Answer (R. Aba): The verse says "not to pass over".
(i) (R. Aba): The verse "months of the year" teaches that a year is always composed of full months.
(j) (R. Aba): The verse "a month of days" teaches that a month is always composed of full days.
(a) The Mishnah taught that we do not advance Tisha b'Av - because we do not advance punishments.
(b) Chagigah and Hakhel are not advanced because we cannot fulfill a Mitzvah before its time has come.
(c) (Beraisa ): Chagigah and the entire time of Chagigah are delayed.
1. We understand that "Chagigah is delayed" when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, we bring it the next day.
2. Question: What is "the time of Chagigah"?
3. Answer (R. Ushiya): We understand the Beraisa thusly: Chagigah on Shabbos, and Olas Re'iyah even on Yom Tov are delayed.
4. This is like Beis Shamai.
i. (Mishnah): Beis Shamai say that we may bring Shlamim on Yom Tov, but we may not do Smichah; we may not bring Olah offerings:
ii. Beis Hillel permit Olah offerings as well, and permit Smichah.
5. Answer#2 (Rava): The Beraisa teaches that we may delay the Chagigah the entire time of Chagigah, but no longer.
i. This is like the Mishnah: One who did not bring the Chagigah on the 1st day may bring it any time during the festival, even the last day of Yom Tov; after this, he has no obligation to bring it.
6. Answer#3 (Rav Ashi): Chagigah may be delayed its entire time, even on Shavuous, which is only one day.
i. This is like the Mishnah: Beis Hillel agree to Beis Shamai that when Shavuous falls on Shabbos, the festival offerings are brought the next day.
(a) (R. Eliezer): Rebbi planted a tree on Purim, openly bathed on the 17th of Tamuz, and tried to uproot Tisha b'Av, but the other Sages disagreed.

(b) (R. Aba argues): He only tried to uproot Tisha b'Av when it fell on Shabbos and was already pushed off to the next day!
1. (R. Eliezer - verse): "Two are better than one" - you saved me from a mistake!
(c) Question: How could Rebbi plant on Purim?
1. (Rav Yosef): "Simcha" teaches that we may not eulogize (on Purim); "Mishteh" teaches that we may not fast; "Yom Tov" teaches that we may not do Melachah!
(d) Answer: Rebbi celebrated Purim on the 14th, and planted on the 15th.
1. Question: This cannot be - Rebbi lived in Teveryah, which was surrounded by a wall from the time of Yehoshua Bin Nun!
(e) Answer#2: Rebbi planted on the 14th, and celebrated Purim on the 15th.
1. Question: Was Rebbi really sure that Teveryah was surrounded by a wall from the time of Yehoshua Bin Nun (and therefore he could plant on the 14th)?
i. Chizkiyah read in Teveryah on both days, since he was unsure if it had a wall from the days of Yehoshua!
2. Answer: Chizkiyah was unsure, Rebbi was sure!
3. Question: Even if he was sure, work is forbidden!
i. (Megilas Ta'anis (a Beraisa which lists days of celebration)): The 14th and 15th are days of Purim on which we may not eulogize.
ii. (Rava): (Since this was already known from Megilas Esther,) Megilas Taanis must come to teach that those who celebrate the 14th (15th) are bound by the restrictions on the 15th (14th) as well!
4. Answer: Rava's teaching only applies to eulogies and fasting, not to Melachah.
5. Question: This cannot be!
i. Rav cursed a man for planting flax on Purim, and the flax didn't grow!
ii. Answer: There, the man planted on the day he celebrates.
(f) Answer#3 (Rabah): We can even say that Rebbi planted on the day he celebrates - Israel never accepted to refrain from work on Purim.
1. Support: The Megilah records that Mordecai wanted to enact Yom Tov, but when it records our acceptance of Purim, it omits this.
2. Question: If so, why did Rav curse the man?
3. Answer: In Rav's area, people had a custom not to work (and one may not act leniently in front of them).
i. There was no such custom in Rebbi's area).
ii. Answer#2: Rebbi's area also had a custom not to work, but Rebbi planted a tree of Simcha.
iii. (Mishnah): If the fasts (over lack of rain) finished and we were not answered, we decrease business, building, planting, engagements and weddings.
iv. (Beraisa ): Only building/planting of Simcha is prohibited, such as a house in which to marry off his son/a king's orchard. (And these are permitted on Purim.)
(a) Chizkiyah was unsure if Teveryah had a wall from the time of Yehoshua.
1. Question: But the verse says that Chamas, Rekes and Kineres were walled cities at that time!
2. And we hold that Rekes is Teveryah!
3. Answer: One side of Teveryah is the sea; Chizkiyah was unsure if this suffices.
4. Question: This certainly does not count as a wall!
i. (Beraisa ): "That has a wall" - to exclude a row of houses which serves as a wall; "around" - to exclude Teveryah, whose wall is the sea!
5. Answer: The Beraisa was taught regarding the law of redeeming a house sold in a walled city; regarding the Megilah, Chizkiyah was unsure.
i. Perhaps the distinction between open and walled cities is whether they are exposed (and Teveryah is exposed).
ii. Or, perhaps the distinction between open and walled cities is whether they are protected (and Teveryah is protected).
(b) Rav Asi read the Megilah on both days in Hutzal; he did not know if it was walled from the days of Yehoshua.
(c) A differing opinion cites Rav Asi as saying that Hutzal had a wall from the days of Yehoshua.
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