BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafMegilah 20
1) [line 21] MAZIN (HAZA'AH)
If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait
seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have
spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled
on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound
together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On
the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on
him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)
2) [line 21] SHOMERES YOM KENEGED YOM
(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah."
If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive
days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may
immerse in a Mikvah *during the day* to become Tehorah. She may even immerse
on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her
Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood
afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because
she must *watch* the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c) If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11
days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become
Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that
she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she
immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of
the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a
Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim.
The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one
offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
3) [line 35] ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos
84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days,
is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the
white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the
consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge
resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine
whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to
an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too
much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to
start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the
seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring *during the day*. At
nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he
emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three
consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order
to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
4) [line 38] BA'AL KERI
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not
enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser,
Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah *during the day* he
becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again
(mid'Oraisa -- the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras
Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after
which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
5) [line 3] LA'ME'IR U'VA KERA'O YOM - He (HaSh-m) called the dawn (lit. the
time when it begins to become light), "day"
6) [line 8] "V'CHETZYAM MACHAZIKIM BA'REMACHIM" - "and half of them held the
spears" (Nechemyah 4:15)
7) [line 12] V'INHU MEKADMEI U'MECHASHCHEI - they stayed late and came early
8) [line 16] VIDUY PARIM
(a) When the bulls that were called Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur and Par
Kohen Mashi'ach were brought, Semichah was performed on them while the sin
for which they were brought was confessed.
(a) PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court)
must bring a Korban if they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that
carries a Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority
of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on
this ruling. The sages bring a young bull as a Chatas on behalf of each of
the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on the Beis Din
ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring a young bull as
an Olah and a goat as a Chatas for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called
a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
9) [line 16] VIDUY MA'ASER
(b) The blood of these bulls was sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches
and the Mizbach ha'Zahav. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood)
was poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains
of the bulls were burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra
(c) PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH - The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought
as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking
that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen
Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people
commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(d) The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is
applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the
Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the
Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on
the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(e) The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not
sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12).
Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim.
(According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the
meat are Metamei Begadim.)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the
produce is called Tevel until he separates Terumos and Ma'asros from it. He
first must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen.
Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set
the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that
remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi,
in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser,
which is also given to a Kohen.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The
punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Ydei Shamayim.
(e) A second tithe is separated from the remaining produce every year after
Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third
and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is
given to the poor. The tithe that is separated during the first, second,
fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*.
(f) The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner
in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in
which case the money used to redeem it retains Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni and is
brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must
add an additional fifth of its value (that is, a fifth of the ensuing total,
or a *quarter* of the original value). In Yerushalayim, the money is used to
purchase food items. The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim
becomes Kodesh with Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
(g) The Torah requires that at two times during the seven-year Shemitah
cycle the owner of a field must recite Viduy Ma'aser, as is learned from
Devarim 26:12-13. He declares that he has set aside all of the required
tithes and gifts, and that he kept all the Mitzvos with regard to them. This
declaration is done in the afternoon of the last day of Pesach in the fourth
and seventh years. The declaration is found in Devarim 26:13-15, and may be
recited in any language that the owner understands. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser
10) [line 17] VIDUY YOM HA'KIPURIM
On Yom ha'Kipurim the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah on his bull while
confessing his sins. He likewise performs Semichah on the Sa'ir of Benei
Yisrael that will be sent to Azazel while confessing the sins of the people.
11) [line 17] SEMICHAH
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his
might on the head of his sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in
12) [line 17, 19] SHECHITAH/KABALAH/HAZAYAH
Offering a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are
Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban
that will be thrown on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards
the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah, (throwing the blood on the outer Mizbe'ach).
Hazayah in our Mishnah refers to Zerikah and to the sprinkling of the blood
of some Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach in the Heichal.
13) [line 18] TENUFAH
Waving portions of certain Korbanos and meal-offerings is called Tenufah;
the Kohen, together with the owner of the Korban (when it is not a Korban
Tzibur), waves them in all four directions and up and down (RASHI Menachos
62a DH Molich. TOSFOS to Sukah 37b DH Kedei, ponders whether all Tenufos
were done in this fashion, or whether some Tenufos only required lifting and
14) [line 18] HAGASHAH
When a Korban Minchah (flour offering) is offered, a Kohen must take the
utensil containing the Minchah and touch it to the southwest corner of the
15) [line 18] KEMITZAH
(a) When a Korban Minchah (flour offering) is offered, a Kohen must take off
a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(b) A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when
they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or
baked goods and removes one handful. The excess of dough or baked goods that
sticks out is then wiped off by the thumb and the smallest finger until only
the Kometz remains.
16) [line 18] MELIKAH
Birds that were brought as Korbanos were not slaughtered from the neck.
Instead, the Kohen would perform Melikah by cutting the back of the neck of
the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the
trachea and the esophagus) of the Olas ha'Of or one Siman of the Chatas
ha'Of. When performing Melikah on the Chatas ha'Of he would make sure not to
sever the entire neck of the bird.
17) [line 19] KABALAH
See above, entry #12.
18) [line 19] HAZAYAH
See above, entry #12.
19) [line 19] HASHKAYAS SOTAH
(a) A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she
was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she
violated the warning. The husband must bring his wife to the Beis
ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2
quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering.
(b) The Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the
curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the
Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to
(c) An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the
Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water.
Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is
written on parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to
dissolve. The Sotah would afterwards drink from the water. If she was
unfaithful to her husband and had been defiled, the water would enter her
body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to
rupture. If she were faithful to her husband, she would remain unharmed and
would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31)
20) [line 19] ARIFAS HA'EGLAH
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Israel) and it is not known
who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in
order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1).
(b) Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme
Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it
to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female
calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing
stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI).
They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its
spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our
hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]."
(Devarim 21:7) This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent
away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper
accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people
Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for]
innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this
procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was
spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
21) [line 20] TAHARAS METZORA (TZIPOREI METZORA)
On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher
birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and an Ezov
branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay
bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the
spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on
the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are
Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is
sent off to the fields. This is the first step in the purification process
of a Metzora. (Vayikra 14:1-7)
22) [line 21] KETZIRAS HA'OMER
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of
Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first
day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of
extracting one Omer (approximately 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the
differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The
flour is baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is
also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16).
(b) In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra
(c) The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year,
and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.