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MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) [line 1] B'GOFEN SHELANU - our script, characters (this word is in the
singular, and refers to the curvature or shape of the letters. The Girsa of
the Aruch is *B'GIFEN* SHELANU)
2) [line 16] PISGAM - decree
3) [line 17] YEKAR - honor, respect
4) [line 26] TALMAI HA'MELECH - King Ptolemy II ("Philadelphus"), king of
Egypt (285 - 246 BCE)
5) [line 37] EVUS - a feeding trough
6) [line 41] ZA'ATUTEI - dignitaries (RASHI, TOSFOS) (with a veiled
connotation of lowliness -- TOSFOS)
7) [line 4] TZE'IRAS HA'REGALIM - the animal with the young feet (the front
feet are shorter than the hind feet and appear to be not fully grown)
8) [line 5] ARNEVES - hare; the angora rabbit, prized for its wool. It is
considered a ruminant by the Torah (Vayikra 11:6, Devarim 14:7). According to
some, this is because of its unique practice of excreting soft food pellets
in the early morning hours and then consuming them (scientifically termed
"coprophagy") in order to process the large amounts of cellulose that they
eat. (Because it is written in the female gender in the Torah, the elders
were afraid that Ptolemy would take it as an insult directed at his wife,
whom he called "Bunny" - PORAS YOSEF.)
9) [line 10] "YAFT..." - "May HaSh-m enlarge Yefes, but he will dwell in the
tents of Shem..." (Bereishis 9:27)
10) [line 15] MERUBAH BEGADIM (Kohen Gadol)
(a) A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the
Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his
consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos
Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)
(b) The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3.
Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6.
Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2.
Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was
anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for
anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim and the kings of
the Davidic dynasty.
(e) Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu
ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II
35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26)
and the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) were also hidden together with
the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which
to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis
ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim
Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubah Begadim
because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven
11) [line 16] PAR HA'BA AL KOL HA'MITZVOS (PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH)
(a) The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a
Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not
prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins
that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit transgressions
upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(b) The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is
applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the
Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the
Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on
the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not
sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12).
Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According
to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are
11) [line 17] PAR YOM HA'KIPURIM
(a) In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on
Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money.
From the money of the Tzibur, he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos
Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an
Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom
ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.
(b) The Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull in the Kodshei Kodashim
(Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbe'ach
ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside
of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The
remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbe'ach
ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement,
because during the rest of the year pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a
requirement for atonement.
12) [line 18] ASIRIS HA'EIFAH (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)
The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah
of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil
in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls were offered in
the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the
Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of
the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach.
13) [line 38] MA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'LO MORIDIN
When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower
its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.
14) [line 42] BAMAH GEDOLAH/BAMAH KETANAH
(a) A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash
was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was
permitted to offer sacrifices on public (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and
private (Bamas Yachid) altars. (See Insights to Pesachim 91:2)
(b) BAMAS TZIBUR: Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At
various times in our history, the Bamah Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the
Mishkan was kept before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved
to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see
Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a
Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to
whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only
the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time. (Zevachim 117a)
(c) BAMAS YACHID: Any man, even if he was not a Kohen could build a Bamas
Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices.
Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.
15) [line 49] SHILOH - the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan
was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael.
The Mishkan stood there for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
16) [line 50, 51] KODSHIM KALIM/KODSHEI KODASHIM
(a) The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'aser
Behemah, Pesach and Bechor, which have a *lesser* degree of sanctity. They
may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part)
and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women.
(b) The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham
(and Menachos), which have a *greater* degree of sanctity. They may only be
slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah and may only be eaten in the
Azarah by Kohanim.
16) [line 50] B'CHOL HA'RO'EH...LIFNIM MIN HA'CHOMAH
(a) When the Mishkan was in Shiloh, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni were
eaten in any place from where Shiloh could be seen.
(b) At the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni could
only be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim.