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Megilah 9

MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 1] B'GOFEN SHELANU - our script, characters (this word is in the singular, and refers to the curvature or shape of the letters. The Girsa of the Aruch is *B'GIFEN* SHELANU)

2) [line 16] PISGAM - decree
3) [line 17] YEKAR - honor, respect
4) [line 26] TALMAI HA'MELECH - King Ptolemy II ("Philadelphus"), king of Egypt (285 - 246 BCE)

5) [line 37] EVUS - a feeding trough
6) [line 41] ZA'ATUTEI - dignitaries (RASHI, TOSFOS) (with a veiled connotation of lowliness -- TOSFOS)


7) [line 4] TZE'IRAS HA'REGALIM - the animal with the young feet (the front feet are shorter than the hind feet and appear to be not fully grown)

8) [line 5] ARNEVES - hare; the angora rabbit, prized for its wool. It is considered a ruminant by the Torah (Vayikra 11:6, Devarim 14:7). According to some, this is because of its unique practice of excreting soft food pellets in the early morning hours and then consuming them (scientifically termed "coprophagy") in order to process the large amounts of cellulose that they eat. (Because it is written in the female gender in the Torah, the elders were afraid that Ptolemy would take it as an insult directed at his wife, whom he called "Bunny" - PORAS YOSEF.)

9) [line 10] "YAFT..." - "May HaSh-m enlarge Yefes, but he will dwell in the tents of Shem..." (Bereishis 9:27)

10) [line 15] MERUBAH BEGADIM (Kohen Gadol)
(a) A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)
(b) The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).
(d) The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.
(e) Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26) and the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) were also hidden together with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubah Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.

(a) The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(b) The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

11) [line 17] PAR YOM HA'KIPURIM
(a) In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money. From the money of the Tzibur, he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.
(b) The Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull in the Kodshei Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, because during the rest of the year pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a requirement for atonement.

The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening. They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.

(a) A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private (Bamas Yachid) altars. (See Insights to Pesachim 91:2)
(b) BAMAS TZIBUR: Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan was kept before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time. (Zevachim 117a)
(c) BAMAS YACHID: Any man, even if he was not a Kohen could build a Bamas Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.

15) [line 49] SHILOH - the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. The Mishkan stood there for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).

(a) The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'aser Behemah, Pesach and Bechor, which have a *lesser* degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part) and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women.
(b) The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a *greater* degree of sanctity. They may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah and may only be eaten in the Azarah by Kohanim.

(a) When the Mishkan was in Shiloh, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni were eaten in any place from where Shiloh could be seen.
(b) At the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni could only be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim.

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