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1) [line 3] D'MIDALYA K'RAKSA D'NAHARA - [Tzipori is raised above the valley below it since it is located at the top of a mountain,] just like the bank of a river is raised above the level of the river
2) [line 4] GINOSAR - a city known for its special climate and bounty of superb fruits. Ginosar is an acronym for Ganei Sarim (princes' gardens). It is identified with (a) a city located in a valley to the west of the Kineret; or (b) the city of Beis She'an (BEREISHIS RABAH 98:17)
3) [line 5] K'KALA D'KINAREI - like the sound of harps, lyres
5) [line 12] ERETZ SHIN'AR - the land of Bavel (the city of Bavel is located in the land of Shin'ar, as mentioned in Bereishis 10:10, 11:2; later the name Bavel came to refer to the entire area)
6) [line 12] ERETZ TZVI - Eretz Yisrael (Tzevi = desire)
9) [line 16] REIKANIN - those who are bare of knowledge; the ignorant
11) [line 22] "ZEVULUN AM CHEREF NAFSHO LAMUS..." - "Zevulun was a people who risked their lives to the death, and Naftali likewise, on the heights of the field." (Shoftim 5:18) - The Gemara interprets this verse homilletically as "Zevulun was a people who despairingly wished that they would die, *because* Naftali was given a portion on the heights of the fields."
12) [line 25] CHILAZON - the underwater snail murex trunculus, from which Techeles is made
13) [line 25] "AMIM HAR YIKRA'U" - "The tribes will assemble at (lit. call on) your mountain" (Devarim 33:19)
14) [line 26] TARIS - (O.F. tonine) tuna
18) [line 33] AD AKRA D'TULBAKNEI - until the port of Tulbaknei, on the southern bank of the Euphrates River (RASHI Kidushin 71b)
19) [line 34] U'FUSYA - and its width
21) [line 36] BEIN HA'CHOLOS - (lit. between the sandy regions) on the sea
23) [line 38] ACHIDAS MIGDAL SHIR/TZOR - [they entitled the act of conquering the city,] "The Capture of Migdal Tzor"
24) [line 40] BEIS BAMYA - House of the Altar (the Girsa of the Bach is BEIS KARYA - House of Heaps (Ruins), in keeping with the verse, "v'Ibadtem Es Shemam" - "and you shall obliterate their names" (Devarim 12:3) -- see Rashi ibid. and Gemara Avodah Zarah 46a)
25) [line 40] BEIS GALYA - House of Revelation. This (and the previous entry) were places of Roman idol worship
26) [line 42] TAR'ATRIYOS - theaters
29) [line 44] METROPOLIN SHEL MELACHIM - city of kings (RASHI notes that the word Metropolin is composed of two words, Mater (mother) and Polin (authority, royalty))
30a) [line 44] MERABEI BAH MALCHEI - they raise princes there until they
31a) [line 47] "...IMAL'AH HA'CHARAVAH." - "[Son of man, because Tzor has
said against Yerushalayim, Aha, she, who was the gateway of the nations, is
broken; it (the gateway, i.e. the focal point of commerce) has turned to me;]
I shall be filled, now that she is laid waste." (Yechezkel 26:2)
(a) CAESAREA - Caesarea is the name of the port city founded by King Herod (who reigned from 37 - 4 BCE) on the site of Strato's Tower, located between Tel Aviv and Haifa. The tower was built as a trading station by King Strato of Tzidon in approximately 375 BCE, and a small city developed around it. Herod revitalized the city between the years 22 - 10 BCE and established a complete Greco-Roman city with all the necessary components: theatre, amphitheater, aqueduct, agora (marketplace), and a large temple overlooking the harbor built upon a raised platform. The temple was dedicated to the emperor Augustus Caesar and the city goddess of Rome. For 1000 years it was a major port of the Mediterranean Sea.32) [line 49] "YUCHAN RASHA..." - "Shall favor be shown to the wicked one who will not learn righteousness? He deals unjustly in the land of uprightness, and does not see the majesty of HaSh-m." (Yeshayah 26:10) - The Gemara interprets this verse as a dialog between HaSh-m and Yitzchak, translating it as follows: "Shall favor be shown [to Esav]?" asked Yitzchak. "He is a wicked one," answered HaSh-m. "Can no one attest to his righteousness?" asked Yitzchak. "He deals unjustly in the land of uprightness," answered HaSh-m. "In that case, let him not see the majesty of HaSh-m," concluded Yitzchak.
33) [line 52] "AL TITEN, HASH-M, MA'AVAYEI RASHA..." - "Do not grant, HaSh-m, the desires of the wicked; do not further their evil plot, lest they be exalted, Selah." (Tehilim 140:9) - The word "Zemamo" also connotes a nose- ring that is used to control disobedient animals. It is the restraint that HaSh-m uses against Germamya Shel Edom so that they do not destroy the world.
34) [line 1] GERAMAMYA SHEL EDOM - (a) "Germamya" (alternatively "Germanya" - - VILNA GAON Yoma 10a; see also YA'AVETZ there) is identified with Cimeria. The Cimerians, who originally lived to the north of the Black Sea, extended their territorial rule to the south of the Black Sea (ousting the native Phrygians). The Cimerians are considered to have originally been a Nordic people, coming from the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. (Some sources identify them as the Cimbri of Jutland -- a peninsula comprising the mainland of Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.) The peninsula extending into the northern part of the Black Sea known today as "Crimea" was the original land of the Cimerians; (b) "Germanya" was the name used for the area occupied by today's Germany (MUSAF HE'ARUCH; RAV YAKOV EMDEN).
35) [line 3] KETIREI TAGA - (lit. wearers of crowns) princes
38) [line 11] L'CHADUDEI - to become sharp, keen in one's understanding
42) [line 15] "YACHILU DERACHAV B'CHOL ES, MAROM MISHPATECHA MI'NEGDO, KOL TZORERAV, YAFI'ACH BAHEM" - "His ways are always successful, Your judgements are far removed from him, all of his adversaries - he puffs at them (he is able to repel his adversaries with little effort)." (Tehilim 10:5)
43) [line 23] V'IM LACHSHECHA ADAM LOMAR - if a person whispers to you,
45) [line 35] ITALYA SHEL YAVAN - the strongest part of Rome
47) [line 43] SEDER PARSHIYOS - the order of the four Parshiyos of Shekalim (Shemos 30:11-16), Zachor (Devarim 27:17-19), Parah (Bamidbar 19:1-22) and ha'Chodesh (Shemos 12:1-20)
48) [line 58] EIN MA'AVIRIN AL HA'MITZVOS When an object with which a Mitzvah is to be performed lies in front of a person, it is not proper to *pass by* this object without performing the Mitzvah (and to perform the Mitzvah, instead, with another object).