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Megilah 4

MEGILAH 2-5 (Elul 27-Rosh Hashanah 5760) - have been dedicated by Dr. Jack and Sarah Dimenstein of Zurich Switzerland. May they be blessed with a year of health and prosperity, physical and spiritual!

1a) [line 1] LOD - the town of Lod, located in the present day city by that name, southeast of Tel Aviv. During the time of the Gemara it was located on the road that led from Yerushalayim to Ceasaria, and it had a mixed population.
b) [line 1] ONO - a Jewish town three Mil away from Lod
c) [line 1] GEI HA'CHARASHIM - a town near Lod and Ono, the name of which suggests that it lies in a forested valley. Rebbi Pinchas is of the opinion that the two towns of Lod and Ono were known collectively as "Gei ha'Charashim" (Yerushalmi Megilah 1:1). All three of these cities are mentioned in Nechamyah 11:35 among the cities of Binyamin.

2) [line 2] BANANHI - built it

3) [line 8] PILEGESH B'GIV'AH - The Concubine of Giv'ah
(a) A civil war ensued after the tribe of Binyamin sympathized with certain men from the city of Giv'ah who performed abhorrent acts with the concubine of a Levi. The Levi dissected her dead body and sent the limbs to all of the tribes of Benei Yisrael to protest the iniquity. The apathy of the men of the tribe of Binyamin and their unwillingness to root out the evil in their midst caused Benei Yisrael to wage war against them.
(b) HaSh-m caused Benei Yisrael to incur huge losses in the first two battles of the war because of various sins of lack of faith, first and foremost their unwillingness to avenge the honor of HaSh-m regarding Pesel Michah (the idol constructed by Michah -- see Shoftim 17-18). After they repented, He let them vanquish Binyamin to the extent that only six hundred men remained from the entire tribe of Binyamin. The events of this tragic time in Jewish history are recorded in Shoftim 19-21.

4) [line 9] HADAR INFUL - they fell into disrepair again
5) [line 10] SHAPTZINHU - he repaired them
6) [line 17] SHO'ALIN V'DORSHIN - the Rav of the community gives a lecture about the Halachos of the coming holiday. Usually the lecture was delivered to a Metugeman (translator) in Hebrew, who translated it and conveyed it loudly to the public

7) [line 24] UL'MISNA MASNISIN - and to learn all of the Mishnayos of Maseches Megilah

8) [line 27] E'EVOR PARSHASA DA V'ESNAYEI - I will finish this chapter and review it
9) [last line] KEDEI SHE'YESAPKU - so that they could [be unhindered in order to] supply


10) [line 1] LEMEIMRA D'TAKANTA D'KERACHIN HEVI? - is that to say that it is an institution for the benefit of the walled-city dwellers?

11) [line 17] SIDURA D'YARCHA - the order of the days of the month

(a) HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either 1. transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, 2. Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, 4. Moshit, which involves *passing* an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 4a). These are all biblical prohibitions.
(b) AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a rabbinical prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.

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