ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Makos 24
MAKOS 21-24 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications
for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
(a) Of the six hundred and thirteen Mitzvos Yisrael were given, according to
Rav Simla'i - there are three hundred and sixty-five La'avin (corresponding
to the days in a year, each of which announces 'Do a Mitzvah on me!'); and
two hundred and forty-eight Asei'in (corresponding to the limbs of a person,
each of which announces, 'Do a Mitzvah with me!').
(b) The hint in the Torah that there are six hundred and thirteen Mitzvos -
lies in the Pasuk in ve'Zos ha'Berachah ("Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe ... "),
since the numerical value of "Torah" is six hundred and eleven, plus the two
Mitzvos ('Anochi' and 'Lo Yiheyeh Lecha') which we heard from Hashem
Himself, add up to six hundred and thirteen.
(c) David Hamelech brought it down to - eleven crucial Mitzvos (see Aruch
(d) "Holech Tamim" (which means 'to follow Hashem without any doubts')
pertains to Avraham (about whom the Torah writes "His'halech Lefanai Veheyei
Tamim", and Po'el Tzedek to the deeds of Aba Chilkiyah (as related in
Ta'anis). When Rebbi Simla'i says that ...
1. ... "ve'Dover Emes bi'Levavo" refers to Rav Safra, - he is referring to
the episode where the latter failed to respond to an offer for a certain
object that he wished to sell, due to the fact that he was reciting the
Sh'ma. He refused to accept a second, higher offer for the object made by
the would-be purchaser, who attributed Rav Safra's silence to his rejection
of his first offer, because in fact, in his heart he had accepted the first
(e) He eventually condescended to go in to his father and lie - only because
his mother forced him to, and even her orders were not her own but those of
2. ... "Lo Ragal al Leshono" refers to Ya'akov Avinu - he is referring to
the episode where the latter initially refused to go in to his father for
the B'rachos, because it would entail lying.
(a) "Lo Asah le'Re'eihu Ra'ah" refers to not encroaching on one's
fellow-Jew's business. "ve'Cherpah Lo Nasa al Kerovo" - to being nice to
one's relatives (see Agados Maharsha).
(b) "Nivzeh be'Einav Nim'as" refers to Chizkiyahu Hamelech, and "Yir'ei
Hashem Yechabed" to Yehoshafat Hamelech.
1. After his father's Achaz died, Chizkiyahu Hamelech - dragged his bones
around on a bed of ropes. "Nivzeh be'Einav Nim'as" therefore means that he
despised whoever was considered despicable in the Eyes of Hashem (even if it
was his own father [see also Agados Maharsha]).
(c) "Nishba Lehara ve'Lo Yamir" refers to Rebbi Yochanan, who would make a
Shevu'ah - to fast until he arrived home (in order to avoid benefiting from
the Nasi [see Agados Maharsha])
2. Whenever Yehoshafat would see a Talmid-Chacham - he would get up from his
throne, hug him and kiss him and address him as 'Rebbi Rebbi, Mari Mari'.
(d) "Kaspo Lo Nasan be'Neshech" comes to include - even taking Ribis from a
Nochri (which is basically permitted).
(a) The last of the eleven things is "ve'Shochad al Naki Lo Lakach". "al
Naki" means - even bribery that is basically permitted to take, like the
case of ...
(b) ... Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi - who refused to judge his
share-cropper, because he brought him fruit that was his anyway, a day or
two earlier (only because he had come to town early in order to be judged).
(c) The Pasuk concludes "Oseh Eileh Lo Yimot", evoking tears on the part of
Raban Gamliel - who understood the Pasuk to mean that only someone who
adheres to all eleven principles will remain unmoved.
(d) His colleagues reassured him however, that since the Pasuk does not
write "Oseh Kol Eileh", it means that even one of them will already cause
one not to be moved. And they learn it - from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Al
Tetam'u be'Chol Eileh" (which certainly does not mean that it is only
someone who transgresses all the Arayos who defiles himself [even though the
Pasuk does use the Lashon "Kol", as we explained in Sanhedrin]).
(a) Yeshayah brought the number of Mitzvos down further, to six main
principles. "Holech Tzedakos" pertains once again, to Avraham Avinu, by whom
the Torah writes 'that Hashem chose him because he would command his
children to go in the ways of Hashem, to do "Tzedakah u'Mishpat".
(b) "ve'Dover Mesharim" refers - to someone who refrains from shaming his
fellow-Jew in public.
(c) "No'er Kapav mi'Temoch be'Shochad", to Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi (as
we explained earlier), and "Mo'es be'Betza Ma'ashakos" (which is written
even before it) pertains to Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha, who was a Kohen - and
who refused to accept the Reishis ha'Gez (the first of the shearings) that
someone who came to him to be judged wanted to give him, because he did not
want to 'rob' the Kohen who normally received it, of his 'dues'.
(a) "Otem Ozno mi'Shemo'a Damim" pertains to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon,
whereas Rebbi Chiya bar Aba explains "ve'Otzem Einav me'Re'os be'Ra". "Otem
Ozno mi'Shemo'a Damim" refers to the incident (in 'ha'Socher es
ha'Po'alim') - where, after his death, a worm came out of Rebbi Elazar
b'Rebbi Shimon's ear, because he once overheard a Tamid-Chacham being put to
shame, and remained silent (which goes to show how meticulous he normally
was in this regard).
(b) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba explains "ve'Otzem Einav me'Re'os be'Ra" - by
someone who shuts his eyes when he passes a spot where women are washing
their clothes in the river (which inevitably causes them to uncover parts of
their bodies that are generally covered).
(c) The Navi says about all of these - ''Hu Meromim Yishkon".
(a) Michah brought the brunt of the Mitzvos down to three, all contained in
the Pasuk "Higid Lecha Adam Mah Tov u'Mah Hashem Doresh me'Imach ... ". By
"Ki-im Asos Mishpat ve'Ahavas Chesed", he means - Din and Gemilus Chasadim.
(b) We connect "Vehatzne'a Leches im Elokecha" with the Mitzvos of Hotza'as
ha'Meis and Hachnasas Kalah - by both of which the Pasuk which writes the
word "Leches" ("Tov Leches el Beis Aveil me'Leches el Beis Mishteh").
(c) And we would then Darshen a 'Kal va'Chomer' with regard to other Mitzvos
(such as Tzadakah) - which, from the very outset, one performs more
discreetly, than Hotza'as ha'Meis and Hachnasas Kalah.
(d) Yeshayah (for the second time) based the Torah on - Dinim and Gemilus
(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak objects to the suggestion that Michah brought
down the number of basic Mitzvos to one, when he said "Ko Amar Hashem
le'Veis Yisrael, Dirshuni Vichyu" - on the grounds that "Dirshuni Vichyu"
might well mean seek Hashem by learning the entire Torah.
(b) The Nevi'im found it necessary to minimize the principles on which the
Torah is based - as the generations became spiritually weaker.
(c) Chavakuk finally based the entire Torah on the Mitzvah - of Emunah, when
he said "ve'Tzadik be'Emunaso Yichyeh".
(a) Rebbi Yossi bar Chanina said about the four harsh decrees that Moshe
issued against K'lal Yisrael - that four Nevi'im negated them (though it is
difficult to understand how it is possible to negate the words of Moshe, for
which one is normally Chayav Misah).
(b) When Moshe blessed Yisrael "Vayishkon Yisrael Badad Ein Ya'akov" - he
meant that Yisrael would only be unique among the nations only provided they
were on the level of Ya'akov.
(c) Amos say about that - "Chadal Na, Mi Yakum Ya'akov" ('Enough of that!
Who can be like Ya'akov'?)
(d) We know that Hashem agreed with him - because the Pasuk writes there
"Nicham Hashem al Zos".
(a) Moshe had said - that Yisrael will find no respite among the nations
("u'va'Goyim ha'Heim *Lo Sargi'a*"), which Yirmiyah negated when he said "Am
Seridei Charev, Haloch *Lehargi'o* Yisrael"?
(b) Moshe said in Ki Sisa "Poked Avon Avos al Banim" (provided the sons
continue to go in the footsteps of the fathers).
(c) To counter it, Yechezkel said - "ha'Nefesh ha'Chota'as Hi Tamus".
(d) The harsh decree that Yeshayah negated when he said "Vehayah ba'Yom
ha'Hu Yitaka be'Shofar Gadol" - was "Va'avadtem ba'Goyim" (in Bechukosai),
in which there will be no-one to redeem).
(a) Rav was afraid of the Pasuk "Va'avadtem ba'Goyim". Rav Papa therefore
suggested - that the Pasuk was speaking about a lost article which the owner
is searching for (and not one that he has given up on [in which case, the
article stands to be found, and there is nothing to be afraid of]). Indeed,
the Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Ta'isi ke'Seh Oved, Bakesh Avdecha" ('I erred
like a lost sheep, seek your servant').
(b) And with regard to the suggestion that maybe it was the continuation of
the Pasuk of which Rav was afraid "ve'Achlah Osam Eretz Oyveichem" (implying
that Yisrael will be destroyed) Mar Zutra commented - that even then, there
was nothing to be afraid of, because perhaps, the Pasuk means like one eats
cucumbers and pumpkins, of which one eats part and leaves part.
1. ... Raban Gamliel, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah and Rebbi Yehoshua began to
weep when they heard sounds of rejoicing in Rome - because, they said, 'If
those heathens, who prostrate themselves before something that is worthless,
and sacrifice to wood and stones, dwell in safety and tranquillity, then
when the House that serves as the footstool of our G-d, lies smoldering, how
can we not cry'?
(b) On another occasion, when the same four Tana'im reached Har ha'Tzofim,
they rent their garments - because from there, they were able to see the
ruins of the Beis-Hamikdash.
2. ... Rebbi Akiva laughed - for the very same reason. Because if those who
transgress Hashem's will have it so good, imagine what is in store for those
who perform Hashem's will.
(c) The same three Tana'im wept once again when they reached the Har
ha'Bayis - because they saw a fox emerge from the Kodesh Kodshim (the place
about which it is written "ve'ha'Zar ha'Karev Yumas").
(d) Again Rebbi Akiva began to laugh, but this time because of the Pasuk
"Ve'a'idah Li Eidim Ne'emanim es Uri'ah ha'Kohen ve'es Zecharyah ben
Berechyah". The problem with the juxtaposition of these two Nevi'im is -
the fact that the former lived in the time of the first Beis-Hamikdash,
whereas the latter lived in the time of the second (see also Tosfos).
(a) The prophesy of ...
***** Hadran Alach Eilu Hein ha'Lokin, u'Selika Lah Maseches Makos *****
1. ... Uri'ah ha'Kohen (in Michah) refers to - the plowing of Yerushalayim
into a field.
(b) What therefore caused Rebbi Akiva to laugh was - the fact having seen
the fulfillment of the first prophecy (which denotes total destruction, into
a place where foxes go [Eitz Yosef]. See also Agados Maharsha).
2. ... Zecharyah ben Berechyah - to the fact that old men and women will yet
sit in the streets of Yerushalayim.
(c) The other Tana'im reacted to Rebbi Akiva's explanation with the words -
'Akiva Nichamtanu Akiva Nichamtanu!'
On to Shevuos