POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Makos 19
MAKOS 16-20 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications
for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) WHAT IS "ME'AKEV" WHEN OFFERING "BIKURIM"? (Cont.)
(a) Question (Rava bar Ada): From what point are Bikurim
forbidden to a Zar by Misas Bi'Dei Shamayim?
(b) Answer: After they enter the Azarah.
(c) This is like R. Eliezer.
1. (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If Bikurim are partially in
the Azarah, the part inside is like Hekdesh in all
respects, the part outside is like Chulin in all
(d) (Rav Ashi): Hanachah is Me'akev Bikurim, Kri'ah is not
(e) This is like R. Yishmael.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi citing R. Yishmael) Suggestion:
One might have thought, even nowadays (i.e. after
the Churban) a person can bring Ma'aser Sheni to
Yerushalayim and eat it.
(f) Objection (Rav Ashi): Granted, Kri'ah is not Me'akev, but
there is a Mitzvah to do Kri'ah - this should have been
part of the question!
i. Question: We should learn from Bechor, which
also must be brought to Yerushalayim, it only
applies when the Mikdash stands!
2. Rejection: "V'Achalta...Ma'aser Degancha...u'Vchoros
Bekarcha" - this equates Ma'aser to Bechor;
ii. Answer: We do not learn from Bechor, for its
blood and Eimurim must be thrown on the
iii. Question: We should learn from Bikurim (which
do not apply today)!
iv. Answer: We do not learn from Bikurim, for they
i. Just as Bechor only applies when the Mikdash
stands, also Ma'aser.
3. (This shows that R. Yishmael says that Kri'ah is not
Me'akev) - he did not say, we do not learn from
Bikurim, for they require Hanachah and Kri'ah.
(g) Answer (Rav Ashi): He did not ask from Kri'ah, because it
does not always apply, e.g. regarding a convert, for he
cannot say "Asher Nishba Hash-m la'Avoseinu".
(h) Question: Why do we need a Hekesh to learn from Bechor -
we should be able to learn from the Tzad ha'Shavah of
Bechor and Bikurim!
(i) Answer: We cannot learn from them, for both pertain to
the Mizbe'ach (blood and Eimurim of Bechor are thrown on
it, Bikurim are put down near it).
(j) Question: What is R. Yishmael's opinion regarding the
Kedushah of the Mikdash?
1. If he holds that the original Kedushah was permanent
(it applies even today), we should be able to bring
(k) Answer (Ravina): He holds that the original Kedushah was
2. If the original Kedushah was not permanent, he
should also ask about Bechor (e.g. if Zerikah was
done while the Mikdash stood, and the meat remained
after the Churban, may it be eaten in
1. If Zerikah of a Bechor was done, and the Churban
came and meat remained, it is obvious to him that it
is forbidden because he equates the meat to the
(l) Question: R. Yishmael learned Ma'aser from a Hekesh to
Bechor - but Bechor itself was learned from a Hekesh, it
cannot teach through a Hekesh (regarding Kodshim).
i. Just as the Mizbe'ach is needed to throw the
blood, it is a condition to eat the meat.
(m) Answer: Ma'aser (of produce) is not Kodshim, it is
(n) Question: This is according to the opinion that it
depends on whether or not the matter being learned is
2) EATING "MA'ASER SHENI" "B'TUM'AH"
1. But according to the opinion that it depends on the
matter being learned from, Bechor is Kodesh, we
cannot learn to Ma'aser!
(o) (The Hekesh (k:1) merely revealed that) blood and meat
(of the Bechor) are the same (we do not consider the
prohibition to eat the meat to be derived from somewhere
(a) (Mishnah): Kodshei Kodoshim...(and Ma'aser Sheni outside
3) WHEN MAY "MA'ASER SHENI" BE REDEEMED?
(b) Question: The first Mishnah of our Perek already taught
Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh that were not redeemed!
(c) Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Our Mishnah discusses a
Tahor (person) eating Tahor Ma'aser Sheni outside
Yerushalayim, the first Mishnah discusses a Tamei eating
Tamei Ma'aser Sheni in Yerushalayim.
(d) Question: What is the source that one is lashed for this?
(e) Answer (Beraisa - R. Shimon): "V'Lo Vi'arti Mimenu
b'Tamei" - (in the confession of Ma'aser) I did not eat
when I or the Ma'aser was Tamei;
1. I do not know where the Torah warns against this...
i. Interjection: The Torah explicitly warns a
Tamei person - "...V'Tam'ah Ad ha'Erev v'Lo
Yochal Min ha'Kodoshim"!
2. Continuation: It says (regarding a blemished Bechor)
"Bi'Sh'arecha Tochalenu ha'Tamei veha'Tahor
ii. Clarification: R. Shimon asks where the Torah
warns against eating Tamei Ma'aser.
i. (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): A Tamei and Tahor may
eat from the same bowl, we are not concerned
that the food is Tamei.
ii. It says "Lo Suchal Le'chol bi'Sh'arecha
(Ma'aser...)", i.e. Ma'aser may not be eaten
like something else (a blemished Bechor) eaten
"bi'Sh'arecha", i.e. when the food is Tamei.
(a) Question: What is the source that Tamei Ma'aser may be
(b) Answer (R. Elazar): Tamei Ma'aser may be redeemed, even
in Yerushalayim (because it may not be eaten) - "Lo
1. 'Seis' refers to eating - "Va'Yisa *Mas'os* me'Es
Panav" (Yosef gave his brothers to eat.).
(c) (Rav Bivi): Tahor Ma'aser may be redeemed even one step
outside the wall (because it may not be eaten there) -
"Lo Suchal Se'eiso".
(d) Question: We need the verse for R. Elazar's law!
(e) Answer: If it only taught his law, it should have said
'Lo Suchal L'achlo';
1. "Seiso" (which connotes carrying) alludes to Rav
Bivi's law (permission to eat depends on carrying it
(f) Question: Perhaps the verse only teaches Rav Bivi's law!
(g) Answer: If so, it should have said 'Lo Suchal Litlo';
1. Rather, it says "Seiso", which also connotes eating,
to teach both.
(h) (R. Chanina and R. Hoshaya): What is the law if he is
(carrying Ma'aser) at the entrance to Yerushalayim?
1. Clearly, if he is outside and the Ma'aser is inside,
it is considered inside (and it may not be redeemed
if it is Tahor);
(i) Answer (An elder from R. Shimon's academy): "Ki Yirchak
*Mimcha* ha'Makom" - from your entirety, i.e. you may
redeem (Tahor) Ma'aser only if you and your load are
2. If he is inside and the Ma'aser is outside, what is
(j) Question (Rav Papa): What if he is (inside,) holding it
on a reed (and the Ma'aser is outside)? (Perhaps it is
not considered that he is carrying it, so he may redeem
(k) This question is not resolved.
(l) (Rav Asi): One is liable for eating Ma'aser Sheni outside
Yerushalayim only if it was once inside.
1. It says "Lifne Hash-m Elokecha Tochalenu...", and
"Lo Suchal Le'chol bi'Sh'arecha" - the Lav only
applies if it was once possible to eat it "Lifne
Hash-m" (inside Yerushalayim).