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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Kidushin 30

KIDUSHIN 24-30 (9-15 Sivan) - This week's study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.



(a) Rava told Rebbi Nasan bar Ami that whilst his hand was still on his son's neck ...
1. ... he should find him a wife (according to the first Lashon in Rashi).
2. ... he should teach him Musar (according to the second Lashon).
(b) When Rava said 'whilst your hand is still on your son's neck', he meant - whilst he still had control over his son, and he would still listen to him.

(c) The age-bracket that Rava cited was between sixteen and twenty-two, the same age-bracket as one opinion in the Beraisa where Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Nechemyah argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei "Chanoch le'Na'ar al'Pi Darko". The other opinion says - between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four.

(d) "al-Pi Darko" means - a way of life that he will follow for the rest of his life (see also Agados Maharsha).

(a) In reply to the Sh'eilah 'Ad Heichan Chayav Adam Lelamed es B'no Torah?', Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel cited Zevulun ben Dan - whose grandfather taught him Torah (probably incorporating Nevi'im and Kesuvim), Mishnah, Gemara, Halachos and Agados.

(b) The Beraisa obligates a father to learn with his son - only Torah.

(c) In light of this Beraisa, we establish Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel's response to the She'eilah - in that only a grandfather is obligated to learn with his grandsons, but not a great-grandfather.

(a) The Tana of a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Limadtem Osam es Beneichem" - that only a father is obligated to learn with his sons, but not a grandfather with his grandsons.
2. ... "ve'Hoda'atam le'Vanecha ve'Livnei Vanecha" - that if one does learn Torah with one's sons, it is as if he had taught it to himself, to his sons and to his grandsons until the end of time.
(b) In light of this Beraisa, Shmuel justifies his opinion - by citing another Beraisa, which explains "ve'Hoda'atam le'Vanecha ve'Livnei Vanecha" literally.

(c) This Tana extrapolates from "ve'Limadtem Osam es Beneichem" - "Beneichem", 've'Lo Benoseichem' (as we learnt above).

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi learns from the juxtaposition of the Pasuk "Yom Asher Amadta Lifnei Hashem Elokecha be'Chorev" to "ve'Hoda'atam le'Vanecha ve'Livnei Vanecha" - that if one learns Torah with one's grandson, it is as if he had received the Torah from Har Sinai.

(a) Rav Chiya bar Aba was startled when he once met Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi taking his grandson to Shul - because he was wearing some sort of sheet on his head instead of the usual Sudar.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi attributed his strange behavior - to the precious Mitzvah of learning with his grandson that he was about to perform (and he could not wait until he found his Sudar to perform it).

(c) The effect that this subsequently had on Rav Chiya bar Aba was - that he too, stopped having his breakfast (meat roasted on coals) until after he had learned with his little grandson.

(d) The latter would revise the Pasuk he learned the pevious day and learn with him a new one.

(a) Rav Safra quoting Rebbi Yehoshua explained the Pasuk "ve'Shinantam le'Vanecha" (since the Torah does not write "ve'Shinisem") - to mean that one should divide one's learning learning into three, a third Torah, a third Mishnah, and a third Gemara (as if the Torah had written "ve'Shilashtam" (because a 'Nun' and a 'Lamed' are interchangeable).

(b) We object to the original version 'Le'olam Yashlish Adam *Shenosav* ... ' - on the grounds that nobody knows how long he will live.

(c) So the new version reads - 'Le'olam Yashlish Adam Yamav ... ' (which Rashi interprets to mean the days of the week [i.e. two days Torah, two days Mishnah and two days Gemara]).

(d) The early sages were called 'Sofrim', says Rebbi Yehoshua - because they used to count the letters of the Torah (as we shall now see).

(a) The Sofrim said that ...
1. ... the 'Vav' of "Gachon" in Shemini - marks the halfway mark in the Torah in letters.
2. ... the words "Darosh Dorash" in Shemini - marks the halfway mark in words.
3. ... the Pasuk "ve'Hisgalach" in Metzora - marks the halfway mark in Pesukim.
(b) And they said that ...
1. ... the 'Ayin' in "Yecharsemenah Chazir *mi'Ya'ar*" in Tehilim -marks the halfway mark in letters.
2. ... the Pasuk in Tehilim "ve'Hu Rachum Yechaper Avon ... " - marks the halfway mark in Pesukim.
(c) When Rav Yosef asked Rav Safra whether, seeing as there are an even number of letters in the Torah, the 'Vav' of "Gichon" is the letter before or the letter after, the middle letter - that they should fetch a Sefer-Torah and count them.

(d) In spite of Rabah bar bar Chana, who had testified that others had indeed counted the letters under similar circumstances, Rav Yosef refuted Rav Safra's reply, on the grounds that they were not experts in the missing letters and the extra letters in the Torah (like they were in Rabah bar bar Chana's time).

(a) When Rav Yosef asked the same She'eilah concerning "ve'Hisgalach" (since there are also an even number of Pesukim in the Torah), Rav Safra thought that they at least were experts in the Pesukim and that they should therefore count the Pesukim and find out. Rav Yosef disillusioned him however - by informing him that they were not even experts in the Pesukim either. And to prove his point, he cited Rav Acha bar Ada, who came from Eretz Yisrael and said that there, they tended to divide the Pasuk in Yisro "Vayomer Hashem el Moshe Hinei Anochi Ba Eilecha be'Av he'Anan" into three (although we read it as one).

(b) Assuming that there are 5,888 Pesukim in the Sefer Torah, there should be ...

1. ... 5,896 Pesukim in Tehilim, and ...
2. ... 5,880 Pesukim in Divrei Hayamim
(c) Another Beraisa interprets "ve'Shinantam" differently than Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananya. According to him it means - that the words of Torah should be sharp on one's tongue (meaning that one should learn Torah thoroughly and revise many times), so that one is able to answer one's questioner without hesitation, in keeping with the Pasuk "Emor la'Chochmah Achosi At" (implying that all one's learning should be as clear as the knowledge that marrying one's sister is incest).

(d) He also quotes another Pasuk in Mishlei "Kashram al Etzbe'osecha, Kasvam al Lu'ach Libecha", and various Pesukim in Tehilim that refer to the words of Torah as arrows. The enemies referred to in the Pasuk "Ashrei ha'Gever Asher Milei es Ashpaso Meihem ... Ki Yedabru es Oyvim ba'Sha'ar" are none other than father and son, a Rebbe and a Talmid, who are at loggerheads over the Torah that they are learning, but who, once they close their Gemaras, they love one another, as the Pasuk writes "es Vahev be'Sufah" (as if it had written "es Ahav be'Sof").




(a) The acronym of "ve'Samtem" is - 'Sam Tam' (the perfect balm).

(b) The Tana of the Beraisa illustrates it with the Mashal - of a man who hit his son. After placing a salve on the sore, he assured him that as long as the salve remained in place, he could eat whatever he wanted, drink whatever he wanted and wash in either cold or warm water. But once it was removed, then there was always a danger the the food that he ate, the drinks that he drank, and washing in cold water would cause the sore to blister.

(c) The Tana interprets the Pasuk ...

1. ... "ha'Lo Im Teitiv Se'eis" to mean - that as long as one studies Torah (which is called 'Tov'), one can overcome the Yetzer ha'Ra.
2. ... "ve'Im Lo Seitiv, la'Pesach Chatas Rovetz" - that the moment one stops studying it, the Yetzer ha'Ra will overcome him.
3. ... "ve'Eilecha Teshukaso" - that the Yetzer ha'Ra's greatest desire is to induce a man to sin (particularly him, as if no-one else in the world existed).
4. ... "ve'Atah Timshol Bo" - that man is able to control him.
(a) The Tana learns from the Pasuk in Bereishis ...
1. ... "Ki Yetzer Lev ha'Adam Ra mi'Ne'urav" - that, since his Creator testifies that he (the Yetzer ha'Ra) is evil, then he really must be evil (since a creator tends to always find a good side to his creation).
2. ... "Rak Ra Kol ha'Yom" - that each and every day, he tries afresh to induce man to sin.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi comments about the Yetzer ha'Ra, based on the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Tzofeh Rasha la'Tzadik u'Mevakesh Lahamiso" - that each day, he makes efforts to overpower a man and kill him.
2. ... "Elokim Lo Ya'azvenu be'Yado" - that if not for Divine assistance (which comes through Tefilah), one could not possibly overcome him.
(c) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael advocates that, should one come across the Yetzer ha'Ra - one should 'shlep' him to the Beis ha'Medrash (see B'rachos 5a.).

(d) Sometimes he is made of stone, and sometimes of iron. We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "ha'Lo Koh Devarai ka'Eish Ne'um Hashem, u'che'Patish Yefotzetz Sela" - that just as a hammer smashes a rock into fragments (see Tosfos), so too, do words of Torah (that are compared to fire), smash the Yetzer ha'Ra?
2. ... in Yeshayah "Hoy Kol Tzamei Lechu le'Mayim", and "Avanim Shachaku Mayim" - that just as water wears down stone, so does Torah, which is compared to water, wear down the Yetzer ha'Ra.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Kechu Nashim ve'Holidu Banim u'Vanos, *u'Kechu li'Veneichem Nashim*" - that a father is obligated to find a wife for his son.

(b) The problem with the continuation of the Pasuk "ve'es Benoseichem T'nu la'Anashim" is - that it is not up to the father to look for a prospective Chasan for his daughter, but for the prospective Chasan to come looking for her.

(c) We therefore explain the Pasuk to mean that he is obligated to provide her with nice clothes and ornaments, to make her attractive to the prospective Chasan who is looking for her.

(d) According to the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, we learn from the Pasuk "Re'ei Chayim Im Ishah Asher Ahavta", that a father is obligated to teach his son a trade. We explain the Pasuk ...

1. ... (according to him) based on the two interpretations of the word "Ishah" - by comparing teaching him a trade either to finding him a wife (assuming "Ishah" to be literal), or to teaching him Torah (if that is what "Ishah" refers to).
2. ... according to 'Yesh Omrim' in our Mishnah - to mean to teach him how to swim (in which case "Chayim" will mean survival).
(a) The Tana Kama who obligates a father to teach his son a trade. Rebbi Yehudah adds that if he fails to do so, then it is as if he has taught him robbery. Their dispute is whether teaching him the art of business will suffice (the Tana Kama - since this too, is included in 'Chayim' [livelihood]), or not (Rebbi Yehudah - because sometimes one has nothing to sell).

(b) 'Kol Mitzvos ha'Av al ha'Ben (Echad Anashim ve'Echad Nashim Chayavin)' cannot possibly refer to all the Mitzvos that a father is obligated to do for the son - because the Tana has already stated that only the father is obligated to circumcise his son and redeem him, and not his mother.

(c) Despite the fact that, in the Pasuk "Ish Imo ve'Aviv Tira'u", "Tira'u" (in the plural) comes to include a daughter, the Torah nevertheless writes "Ish" - to preclude a married woman (confining the previous D'rashah to a girl who is not yet married), because this often clashes with her obligation towards her husband, which must take precedence.

(d) Rav Idi bar Avin Amar Rav - obligates a divorced woman to respect her parents just like she did before she was married.

(a) The significance of the two Pesukim ...
1. ... "Kabeid es Avicha" and "Kabeid es Hashem me'Honach" is - that the Torah is comparing the honor of parents to the honor of Hashem Himself.
2. ... "Ish Imo ve'Aviv Tiyra'u" and "es Hashem Elokecha Tiyra, ve'Oso Sa'avod" is - that the Torah is comparing the respect of parents to that of Hashem.
3. ... "Mekalel Aviv ve'Imo Mos Yumas" and "Ish Ish Ki Yekalel Elokav, ve'Nasa Chet'o" is - that the Torah is comparing cursing one's parents to cursing Hashem Himself.
(b) The Tana comments about hitting one's parents - that the Torah does not make a similar comparison to hitting Hashem like it makes regarding cursing - simply because it is physically impossible to hit Hashem.
(a) Based on the three partners in a person's birth (Hashem, father and mother) Hashem comments that when a person respects his parents - He considers it as if He had dwelt among them and he had shown Hashem Himself respect.

(b) In the creation of man - Hashem provides his senses and his spiritual accessories, such as knowledge ... ); his father provides the white cells which produce the bones ... , and his mother, the red cells, which produce the blood ... .

(c) Rebbi, commenting on the Torah's priorities with regard to the Mitzvah of honoring parents, explains that the Torah ...

1. ... places the father before the mother re. the Mitzvah of honoring parents - to counter the natural tendency to honor one's mother (who intices him with sweet words) more than one's father.
2. ... places the mother first re. the Mitzvah of respecting them - to counter the natural tendency to honor one's father (who teaches him Torah) more than one's mother.
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