ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kidushin 29
KIDUSHIN 24-30 (9-15 Sivan) - This week's study material has been dedicated
by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband,
Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many
people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew
him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.
(a) The Beraisa lists all the cases of a Hedyot purchasing from Hekdesh, the
first of which is 'Moshcho be'Manah ve'Lo Hispik li'Fedoso ad she'Amad
be'Masayim'. When the Tana says 'li'Fedoso', he means - to pay for it.
(b) He pays two hundred Zuz ...
1. ... in this case - because, as we learned in our Mishnah, 'Reshus
(c) If he redeemed the article for two hundred Zuz, but by the time he made
the Meshichah, it had dropped to a Manah - he also pays two hundred Zuz for
it (because 'Reshus ha'Gavohah be'Kesef').
2. ... in the reverse case, where at the time of the Meshichah the article
was worth two hundred Zuz, and it dropped to a Manah before he managed to
pay - because the Reshus of Hekdesh should not be less stringent than that
of Hedyot, where Meshichah acquires (In other words, we always go le'Chumra
regarding Kinyanim, and whichever Kinyan is to Hekdesh's advantage, takes
(d) However, in the reverse case, where he redeemed the article for a Manah
and the price rose to two hundred Zuz before he managed to make a Meshichah,
he pays only a Manah - because in such a case, Hekdesh is indeed no
different than Hedyot, who cannot retract without receiving a 'Mi she'Para'
(a) When the Tana of our Mishnah states 'Kol Mitzvos ha'Ben al ha'Av,
Anashim Chayavin, ve'Nashim Peturos', he cannot be referring to Mitzvos of a
son towards his father - because we have learned in a Beraisa, women are
obligated to respect their parents just like men.
(b) The Tana does indeed comment on the Mitzvos of a son towards his father
in the next case, which he refers to as 'Kol Mitzvos ha'Av al ha'Ben', and
he concludes 'Echad Anashim ve'Echad Nashim Chayavin'.
(c) A woman is exempt - from Mitzvos Asei that are time-related.
(d) And she is also exempt from the three Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh - cutting the
Pei'os, destroying the beard, and (if she is a Kohenes) rendering herself
self Tamei for as dead person, all of which are permitted to her.
(a) We know that a woman is obligated to respect her parents - from the
Pasuk in Kedoshim "Ish Imo ve'Aviv *Tira'u*" (from the fact that it is
written in the plural).
(b) According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, the three obligations that a
father has towards his son, besides the Mitzvos of Milah and Pidyon ha'Ben -
are teaching him Torah, finding him a wife and teaching him a trade.
(c) 'Yesh Omrim (Rebbi Nasan), Af Lehasito ba'Mayim'. Chazal have obligated
a father to teach his son to swim - because he might find himself in a
situation where he is traveling by boat, and the boat sinks.
(d) Rebbi Yehudah says that a father who does not teach his son a trade - it
is as if he was teaching him robbery, because, seeing as he has no other
means of livelihood, he will have to resort to highway robbery (or some
similar occupation) in order to live.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Vayamal Avraham es Yitzchok B'no" - that a father is obligated to
circumcise his son.
(b) If neither the father nor Beis-Din circumcised him, then he becomes
obligated to circumcise himself when he grows up. The difference between
their obligation and his is - that his obligation carries with it a Chiyuv
Kareis (immediately, according to some Rishonim; when he dies, according to
others), whereas their obligation is a regular Asei.
2. ... "Himol Lachem Kol Zachar" - (from the use of the plural) that when
there is no father to perform the Mitzvah, then Beis-Din (as representatives
of the community) become obligated to perform it.
3. ... "Ka'asher Tzivah *Oso* Elokim" - that his father is obligated but not
(c) We know that this set of Halachos was not confined to Avraham Avinu, but
applies to all generations from the Lashon "Tzivah", and from Tana de'Bei
Rebbi Yishmael - that every Lashon "Tzav" in the Torah is a Lashon of
encouragement and applies to all generations.
(d) He learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Tzav es Yehoshua ve'Chazkeihu ve'Amtzei'hu" - that "Tzav" is a
Lashon of encouragement.
2. ... "Min ha'Yom Asher Tzivah Hashem va'Hal'ah le'Doroseichem" - that it
applies to all generations.
(a) We learn that a father is obligated to redeem his firstborn son from the
Pasuk "Kol Bechor Banecha Tifdeh", and from ...
1. ... the Pasuk "Ach *Padoh Tifdeh* es Bechor ha'Adam" - that where the
father did not redeem his son, then the son becomes obligated to redeem
himself when he grows up.
(b) And we know that a father is not obligated to redeem his daughter - from
the Pasuk "es Bechor Banecha Tifdeh", from which we Darshen "Banecha",
2. ... "Tifdeh" "Tipadeh" (from the fact that "Tifdeh" is written without a
'Yud') - that whoever is not obligated to redeem himself (i.e. a woman) is
not obligated to redeem others (i.e. her son).
3. ... "Tipadeh" "Tifdeh" - that whoever is not obligated to be redeemed by
his father (i.e. as daughter), is not obligated to redeem himself.
(a) According to the Tana Kama of the Beraisa, if a man is faced with the
Mitzvah of redeeming himself and his son, then *he* takes precedence. Rebbi
Yehudah says - that his son takes precedence, seeing as redeeming his son is
basically *his* mitzvah, whereas *his* redemption was basically incumbent
upon his father.
(b) Rebbi Yirmiyah qualifies this Machlokes. In his opinion - even Rebbi
Yehudah concedes that, if he only have five Sela'im and no more, the
father's redemption takes precedence (because a Mitzvah that pertains to
oneself always takes precedence over a Mitzvah that pertains to someone
(c) He therefore establishes the Machlokes when there are also Meshubadim
(i.e. fields that the father sold before the Pidyon ha'Ben of his son fell
due). The Chachamim hold that 'Milveh di'Chesiv ba'Torah La'av ki'Chesuvah
bi'Sh'tar Damya', and Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Milveh di'Chesiv ba'Torah
ki'Chesuvah bi'Sh'tar Damya'.
(d) Consequently, according to ...
1. ... the Rabbanan, precedence is given to himself - since there is no
Meshubadim, and we have already learned that, when there only five Sela'im,
his own redemption comes first.
2. ... Rebbi Yehudah, precedence is now given to his son - for whom the
Kohen takes the B'nei Chorin, thereby enabling him (or another Kohen) to now
redeem the father as well, from the Meshubadim (which are Meshubad for the
father's redemption, but not for the son's).
(a) If someone is confronted with the Mitzvah of redeeming his son and going
to Yerushalayim for Yom-Tov (together with his Olas Re'iyah), and he can
only afford one of them, the Tana Kama of another Beraisa obligates him to
give precedence to the former. Rebbi Yehudah says - that he should first go
to Yerushalayim - to perform the Mitzvah that has a time-limit, whereas
Pidyon ha'Ben can be performed later.
(b) The Rabbanan counter this - by quoting the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "Kol Bechor
Banecha Tifdeh, ve'Lo Yera'u Panai Reikam", clearly giving precedence to
Pidyon ha'Ben (over appearing before Hashem with the Olas Re'iyah).
(c) We learn from the word "Kol" - that if a man conceives five sons who are
all firstborn of their mothers, then each one needs to be redeemed.
(d) This is not obvious at all, despite the Pasuk which refers to Bechor as
"Peter Rechem" - because we would otherwise have learned from the
'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Bechor" "Bechor" from inheritance, that Bechor goes
after the father too (and that only a firstborn to both his father and his
mother needs to be redeemed.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Limadtem Osam es Beneichem" - that a father is obligated to learn
Torah with his son.
(b) And we know that a father is not obligated to teach his daughter - from
the Pasuk "ve'Limadtem Osam es Beneichem", 've'Lo Benoseichem'.
2. ... "u'Lemadtem Osam u'Shemartem La'asosam" - that (even) if his father
failed to teach him, then he is obligated to teach himself when he grows up.
3. ... "ve'Limadtem" 'u'Lemadtem' (from the fact that the Torah omits a
'Yud') - that a daughter, who is not obligated to be taught by her father,
is not obligated to learn herself either, and that since she is not
obligated to learn herself, she is not obligated to teach her son.
(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa rules that where both the father and the
son wish to learn, and there is only sufficient sustenance for one, the
father takes precedence. Rebbi Yehudah says - that if the son is keener,
knows more and has a better memory, then he should rather go and his father
should look after the estate.
(a) When Rav Acha B'rei de'Rav Ya'akov sent his son Rav Ya'akov to Abaye's
Yeshivah to learn and he returned for Bein ha'Zemanim - his father tested
him and found him deficient. So, on the basis that he was a bigger Lamdan
than his son, he instructed him to remain at home to tend to the estate,
whilst he went to Yeshivah to learn.
(b) Abaye instructed the Talmidim not to invite Rav Acha bar Ya'akov -
because he knew him to be a great Tzadik, and he would perhaps save them
from the havoc that the fearful demon who plagued their Beis-Hamedrash
wraught (even when there were two people, and even during the daytime).
(c) That night - the demon threatened Rav Acha bar Ya'akov, taking on the
appearance of a serpent with seven heads. Each time Rav Acha, immersed in
prayer, bowed down, one of the heads fell off.
(d) Rav Acha, attributing his escape to a pure miracle (rather than to his
own righteousness) commented that, if not for the miracle, Abaye might have
been held responsible for a terrible tragedy.
(a) The Sugya discusses the order of priorities between learning Torah and
marriage. The Tana of the Beraisa gives precedence to Torah study - unless
one has difficulty in controlling his thoughts.
(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel gives precedence to marriage. Rebbi Yochanan
seemingly objects to Shmuel's ruling on the grounds - that a person cannot
possibly concentrate on his learning when he carries the yoke of Parnasah on
(c) We conclude however, that they do not argue, because 'Ha Lan, ve'Ha
Lehu' - meaning that Shmuel was talking to the B'nei Bavel, who used to
travel to Eretz Yisrael to study Mishnayos. And, because they were away from
home, they did not have the yoke of Parnasah on their shoulders and could
comfortably get married first. Whereas Rebbi Yochanan was speaking to the
B'nei Eretz Yisrael, who studied Torah at home. They were better off
learning first and marrying afterwards (see also Tosfos DH 'Ha Lan').
(a) When Rav Chisda boasted to him about Rav Hamnuna's greatness - he
replied that when he came to hand, he should send him to him (presumably
because he wanted to set eyes on such a great Torah-scholar).
(b) Rav Hamnuna did not cover his head with a Sudar - because he was not yet
(c) When Rav Hamnuna told Rav Huna that he was not yet married - he turned
his back on him and told him not to see him again until he had a wife.
(d) Rav Huna follows his own reasoning. He says that someone who reaches the
age of twenty and is not yet married - will constantly live with immoral
(a) Rava corroborates this with a statement from Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael,
who says that if someone reaches the age of twenty and does not marry -
Hashem declares 'Tipach Atzmosav' ('Let his bones swell!') see Agados
(b) Rav Chisda attributed his superiority over his colleagues to the fact -
that he married at sixteen.
(c) What he meant was - that he was better able to concentrate on his
learning (rather than on other things), placing him ahead of his colleagues
who, because they married only at eighteen, had to grapple with this
(d) He said that, had he married at fourteen - he would have been able to
challenge the Yetzer ha'Ra and win.