POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kidushin 40
KIDUSHIN 36-40 - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) INTEREST ON MITZVOS
(a) Question (Rava - Mishnah): By the following Mitzvos, the
principle reward is saved for the world to come, and a
person enjoys 'fruits' of the Mitzvos in this world:
honoring parents; bestowing Chesed; making peace between
people; Torah is equivalent to all of them.
2) THE RESULTS OF SINS AND MITZVOS
1. "In order that your days will be lengthened and it
will be good for you" - this teaches honoring
(b) Question: By sending the mother bird, it also says "In
order that it will be good for you and your days will be
lengthened" - why isn't this listed?
2. "One who pursues Tzedakah and Chesed will find life,
Tzedakah and honor" - this teaches bestowing Chesed;
3. (R. Avahu): We learn a Gezeirah Shavah
"Redifah-Redifah" to "Seek peace and pursue it" -
this teaches making peace between people;
4. "It is your life and the length of your days" - this
(c) Answer #1: The Tana omitted some Mitzvos.
1. Objection: He said "These Mitzvos" - he did not omit
(d) Answer #2 (Rava): "A good Tzadik...will eat the fruits of
his deeds" - are there Tzadikim that are not good?!
1. Rather, a Tzadik that is good towards Hash-m and
people, is a good Tzadik; a Tzadik that is good
towards Hash-m but bad to people is not a good
(e) Merit has principle and fruits - "A good Tzadik...";
2. Similarly: "Woe to an evil Rasha, he will be paid as
his actions" - aren't all Resha'im evil?!
i. Rather, one who is evil to Hash-m and people is
an evil Rasha; one who is evil to Hash-m but
not to people is not an evil Rasha.
1. Sins have principle (for punishment) but not fruits
- "Woe to the Rasha..."
(f) One is rewarded for a good intention.
2. Question: But it says, "They will eat the fruits of
their ways, and will be satiated from their (evil)
3. Answer: Sins that have fruits (that cause others to
sin), the punishment for them has fruits.
1. (Rav Asi): "U'Lechoshevei His name" - one who
Chashav (thought) to do a Mitzvah, but was unable,
the verse considers him to have done it.
(g) Hash-m does not punish for a bad intention - "If I saw
sin in my heart, Hash-m will not hear".
(h) Question: But it says "I will bring to this nation evil,
the fruits of their thoughts"!
(i) Answer: Hash-m only punishes (additionally) for a bad
intention that is fulfilled.
(j) Question: But it says "In order to trap Benei Yisrael in
(k) Answer #1 (Rav Acha bar Yakov): That is written by
1. Idolatry is severe - one who denies idolatry is as
one who admits to the entire Torah.
(l) Answer #2 (Ula): Hash-m punishes for intention to repeat
1. (Rav Huna): Once a person sins and repeats the sin,
it becomes permitted to him.
2. Objection That cannot be!
3. Answer: Rather, he views it as being permitted.
(a) (R. Avahu): It is better to sin privately, and not to
profane Hash-m's name in public - "Let each man serve his
idols...do not profane my Holy name."
(b) (R. Eliezer ha'Zaken): If a person feels his evil
inclination overpowering him, he should go to a place
where people don't recognize him, cover himself in black,
and do as his heart desires - this way, he will not
profane Hash-m's name.
(c) Question (Beraisa): Anyone that is not concerned for the
Creator's honor, he should not have come to the world.
1. (Rabah): This is one who gazes at a rainbow.
(d) Answer: Rav Yosef speaks of one who could have overcome
his inclination; R. Eliezer speaks of one who was unable.
2. (Rav Yosef): This is one who sins in private.
(e) Question (Mishnah): 'Hash-m is not Makif (regarding
profanation of his name, whether unintentionally or
intentionally)' - what does this mean?
(f) Answer #1 (Mar Zutra): Hash-m does not extend credit
(rather, he punishes right away).
(g) Answer #2 (Mar brei d'Ravna): If merits and sins are
equal, this sin makes the sins prevail.
(h) (Beraisa): A person should view himself as if his merits
and sins weigh equally;
3) THE REWARD FOR TORAH
1. If he does 1 Mitzvah - he is now mostly a Tzadik!
(i) (R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon): The world is judged by its
majority, and individuals are judged by their majority.
2. If he does 1 sin - he is mostly evil!
i. "One Chotei (sinner) can ruin much good" - one
can lose many good things because of 1 Chet,
1. By doing 1 Mitzvah, one can make himself a Tzadik,
and change the judgment of the world to merit!
(j) (R. Shimon bar Yochai): Even one who was a Tzadik his
whole life, if he rebels at the end, he loses all his
merits - "The righteousness of the Tzadik will not save
him on the day of his transgression".
2. By doing 1 sin, one can make himself a Rasha, and
change the judgment of the world to liability!
1. Even one who was a Rasha his whole life, if he
repents at the end, his sins are not mentioned -
"The Rasha will not stumble in his evil on the day
he repents from it."
(k) Question: One who sins at the end - why is he not as one
who is half-meritorious?
(l) Answer (Reish Lakish): One who regrets his merits, he is
not rewarded for them.
(a) (Mishnah): One who learns (written) Torah and Mishnah,
and acts properly - he is not likely to sin - "A
3-stranded rope is not quick to become untied";
(b) One who does not learn Torah or Mishnah, and acts
improperly - he is not civilized.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. R. Elazar ben Tzadok): Tzadikim in
this world are compared to a tree that stands in a Tahor
place, and its foliage is in a Tamei place;
1. If the foliage is cut, it is then entirely in a
(d) Resha'im in this world are as a tree that stands in a
Tamei place, and its foliage is in a Tahor place;
2. Similarly, Hash-m brings afflictions on Tzadikim in
this world, in order that they will inherit the
world to come - "Your beginning will be small, your
end will be very exalted."
1. If the foliage is cut, it is then entirely in a
(e) Question: Which is greater - learning Torah or doing
2. Similarly, Hash-m bestows good on Resha'im in this
world, in order that they will descend to the lowest
level - "There is a path, straight in the eyes of
men, and its end are ways of death."
(f) Answer #1 (R. Tarfon): Doing Mitzvos is greater.
(g) Answer #2 (R. Akiva): Learning Torah is greater.
(h) (Rabanan): Learning Torah is greater, for learning leads
one to do the Mitzvos.
(i) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Learning Torah is great, for it
applied 40 years before Chalah, 54 years before Terumah
and Ma'aser, 61 years before Shemitah, and 103 years
(j) Question: It should be 104 years before Yovel (since the
fiftieth year is Yovel)!
(k) Answer: R. Yosi holds that land returns at the beginning
of the fiftieth year.
1. Just as Torah applied before other Mitzvos, also the
judgment on Torah comes before judgment on other
(l) (Mishnah): Whoever does not learn written Torah or
2. (Rav Hamnuna): "One who lets go of water, this is
the beginning of his judgment" - a person is first
judged on Torah.
3. Just as the judgment on Torah precedes that of other
Mitzvos, also the reward for Torah - "He gave them
lands...because they guard His statutes and Torah".
(m) (R. Yochanan): Such a person cannot be a witness.
(n) (Beraisa): One who eats in the market - he is as a dog;
1. Some say, he cannot be a witness.
(o) (Bar Kapara): An angry person - he gains nothing from his
anger, it only harms him;
2. (Rav Idi bar Avin): The law is as this opinion.
1. Hash-m gives a Tzadik a taste of the reward for his
2. Anyone who does not learn written Torah or Mishnah
and does not behave properly - one should vow not to
benefit from him.
i. "In the gathering of scoffers he did not sit" -
he is as a scoffer.