(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

Ask A Question on the daf

Previous daf

Kidushin 39

KIDUSHIN 36-40 - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) (Rav Asi): One is lashed mid'Oraisa for Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz.
(b) Question (R. Elazar bar Asi - Mishnah): Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz is forbidden mid'Rabanan.
(c) Answer: Rav Asi refers to grafting diverse species of trees.
1. (Shmuel): "Guard my statutes" - that I previously decreed;
2. "Do not crossbreed your animal, do not plant Kil'ayim in your field" - just as one may not mate animals 1 on the other, the same applies to your field (i.e. grafting trees);
i. Just as crossbreeding animals applies in Chutz La'aretz, also grafting trees. ii. Question: But "Your field" implies in Eretz Yisrael!
iii. Answer: That teaches that planting Kil'ayim is only forbidden in Eretz Yisrael.
(d) Rav Chanan and Rav Anan saw a man planting Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz.
1. Rav Anan: We should excommunicate him!
2. Rav Chanan: No, he is not transgressing.
(e) They saw a man planting wheat and barley in a vineyard in Chutz La'aretz.
1. Rav Anan: We should excommunicate him!
2. Rav Chanan: No, he is not transgressing - the law is as R. Oshiya.
i. (R. Oshiya): To transgress Kil'ayim in a vineyard, one must plant a grape seed and 2 other species together.
(f) Rav Yosef mixed diverse seeds and planted them together.
(g) Question (Abaye - Mishnah): Kil'ayim applies in Chutz La'aretz mid'Rabanan!
(h) Answer (Rav Yosef): That refers to Kil'ayim in a vineyard, not in a field.
1. Since in Eretz Yisrael, one may not benefit from Kil'ayim in a vineyard, Chachamim forbade such Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz;
2. One may benefit from Kil'ayim in a field in Eretz Yisrael, Chachamim did not forbid such Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz.
(i) Retraction (Rav Yosef): Even Kil'ayim of a field is forbidden in Chutz La'aretz - Rav planted his garden in distinct patches.
1. Suggestion: This was to avoid Kil'ayim!
2. Rejection (Abaye): Had he planted as the Mishnah suggests (to maximize the distinct species within an area without transgressing Kil'ayim), that would be correct.

i. Since he didn't plant that way, he merely planted in patches so it should look nice, or for ease of harvesting.
(a) (Mishnah): One who does a Mitzvah - Hash-m will bestow good to him and lengthen his days, and he will inherit the land;
1. The opposite applies if he does not do the Mitzvah.
(b) (Gemara) Contradiction (Mishnah): For the following Mitzvos, a person is rewarded with interest in this world, and the principle remains for him in the world to come: honoring parents, bestowing Chesed, hosting guests, making peace between people, and learning Torah is equivalent to all of them together.
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah says, one who does 1 Mitzvah beyond his merits (that weighed equally against his sins), Hash-m will bestow good to him, as someone that kept the entire Torah.
(d) Inference: By the Mitzvos listed in the other Mishnah, he gets these rewards for doing 1 Mitzvah alone!
(e) Rejection: (Rav Shemaya): No - the Mitzvos listed can tip the scales if a person's merits (with that Mitzvah) equal his sins.
(f) (Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah says, one who does 1 Mitzvah beyond his merits, Hash-m will bestow good to him...
(g) Contradiction (Beraisa): Anyone whose merits outweigh his sins - Hash-m will do evil to him, he will be appear to be punished as someone that burned the entire Torah;
1. Anyone whose sins outweigh his merits - Hash-m will do good to him, he will be appear to be rewarded as someone that kept the entire Torah.
(h) Answer #1 (Abaye): When the Mishnah says, one who does 1 Mitzvah beyond his merits, Hash-m will bestow good to him, it means that Hash-m prepares him for the world to come (by punishing him in this world for his sins);
1. One who does not do the extra Mitzvah, Hash-m will bestow evil to him - this means, Hash-m withholds from him reward in the world to come (by rewarding him in this world for his merits).
(i) Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah (that says that Hash-m does evil to someone who has mostly merits) is as R. Yakov, who says that reward for a Mitzvah cannot come in this world.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yakov): Any Mitzvah by which the Torah mentioned its reward, it makes a person merit to be revived after death.
2. By honoring parents it says "In order that you will lengthen your days and it will be good for you";
3. By sending the mother bird it says "In order that it will be good for you and your days will be lengthened".
4. If a man asked his son to bring him chicks from the top of a building, and the son obeyed, chasing away the mother away before taking the chicks, he fulfilled both Mitzvos;
i. Question: If the son falls and dies on the way down - where is his reward (length of days...)?
ii. Answer: We must say, the reward promised is in the world to come.
5. Question: Perhaps such an incident never happened!
6. Answer: R. Yakov witnessed such an incident.
7. Question: Perhaps the son was thinking about idolatry (and therefore he was punished)!
i. "In order to trap Benei Yisrael in their hearts" (one is punished for thoughts of idolatry as if he served it).
8. Answer: Even so - if reward for a Mitzvah comes in this world, the Mitzvah should have guarded the son from coming to such thoughts.
9. Question: How could such an incident occur?!
i. (R. Elazar): Those engaged in Mitzvos are not harmed.
10. Answer: The son was harmed on the way back, after doing the Mitzvah.
11. Question: but R. Elazar said that those engaged in Mitzvos are not harmed, not on their way to the Mitzvah, nor on the way back!
12. Answer: The ladder was rickety - it was clearly dangerous.
i. We do not rely on miracles in dangerous situations - "Shmuel said, how can I go (anoint David) - Sha'ul will hear and kill me!"
(j) (Rav Yosef): Had Acher expounded the verse as R. Yakov, he would not have become a heretic.
(k) Question: Why did he become a heretic?
(l) [Version #1 - Answer: He also saw a son fulfill these 2 Mitzvos and die.]
(m) [Version #2 - Answer: He saw a pig dragging the tongue of Chutzpis the translator (a great sage and Tzadik killed by the Romans).]
1. It appeared to him that there is no reward for Torah and Mitzvos, so he sinned.
(a) Question (Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna - Mishnah): Anyone that does a Mitzvah - Hash-m does good to him.
1. This is only if he does an action!
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa): One who refrains from sinning - he is rewarded as one that did a Mitzvah.
(c) Answer (Rava): The Beraisa speaks when he was tempted to sin, and overcame it.
1. A woman asked R. Chanina bar Papa to sin with her. He said something which caused his body to be covered with boils; she healed him (through witchcraft).
2. R. Chanina hid in a bathhouse that was inhabited by very strong damaging spirits that could harm even 2 people in the daytime; he was not harmed.
3. Chachamim (who did not know why he entered): What saved you?
4. R. Chanina: Two people that carry the Kaiser guarded me all night.
5. Chachamim: Perhaps you were tempted to sin (sexually) and overcame it?
i. (Beraisa): Anyone tempted to sin (sexually) that overcomes it, a miracle is done for him.
ii. A woman tempted R. Tzadok to sin.
iii. R. Tzadok: I am too weak - do you have anything to eat?
iv. The woman: Only meat of a Tamei animal.
v. R. Tzadok: So I deserve!
vi. As she was heating the oven, R. Tzadok entered it - he explained, he will later be burned for sinning. She left him alone.
(d) Rav Kahana was selling women's baskets. A woman asked him to sin; he said he needed time to adorn himself. He went to the roof and jumped off; Eliyahu caught him.
1. Eliyahu: You made me come a tremendous distance to save you!
2. Rav Kahana: My poverty forced me into this profession!
i. Eliyahu gave him much money so he could quit his job.
Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,