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Kidushin 30

KIDUSHIN 24-30 (9-15 Sivan) - This week's study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.


(a) Question: What is the extent of the obligation to teach one's son Torah?
(b) Answer (Rav Yehudah): As Zevulun ben Dan - his grandfather taught him written Torah, Mishnah, Gemara, laws, and Agados.
(c) Question (Beraisa): One must teach one's son written Torah - he need not teach him Mishnah!
(d) Answer: Regarding how many generations one must teach, the obligation extends as in the case of Zevulun ben Dan, whose grandfather taught him;
1. One is not obligated to teach as much as Zevulun ben Dan was taught - written Torah is enough.
(e) Question: Is a grandfather really obligated?!
1. (Beraisa): "You will teach your sons" - and not your grandsons;
2. Question: But it says, "You will make known to your sons and grandsons"!
3. Answer: This teaches, one who teaches his son Torah, it is considered as if he also taught his grandsons and all future generations.
(f) Answer: Rav Yehudah holds as the following Tana.
1. (Beraisa) Question: "You will teach your sons" - from where do we know, also your grandsons?
2. Answer: "You will make known to your sons and grandsons"!
3. Question: If so, why does it say "You will teach your sons" (implying only your sons)?
4. Answer: That teaches, one need not teach his daughters.
(g) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): One who teaches his grandson Torah, it is considered as if he received it from Sinai - "You will make known to your sons and grandsons...the day you stood before Hash-m on Sinai".
(h) Reish Lakish donned a makeshift head covering and was taking his son to learn.
1. R. Chiya bar Aba: You don't have time to dress accordingly?
2. Reish Lakish: This is no light matter - "You will make known to your sons and grandsons...the day you stood before Hash-m on Sinai"!
3. From that day, R. Chiya bar Aba would not eat each morning until he reviewed his son's learning (of the previous day) and taught him more.
4. Rabah bar Rav Huna would not eat each morning until he brought his son to learn.
(i) (Rav Safra): "v'Shinantam (you will teach them) to your sons" - since it did not say "v'Shanisam", we expound this to say v'Shilashtam (you will divide in thirds);
1. A person should divide his years in 3 - one third he should learn written Torah, one third Mishnah, and one third Gemara.
2. Objection: But a person does not know how many years he will live!
3. Answer: He should divide the days of each week among these 3 (Rashi; Tosfos - each day, he should learn all 3).
(a) The early sages were called Sofrim (counters), for they would count all letters of the Torah:
1. The Vav of "Gachon" is the middle letter (of the large and small letters) of the Torah;
2. "Darash, Darash" are the middle words;
3. "v'Hisgalach" is the middle verse;
4. The Ayin of "mi'Ya'ar" is the middle letter of Tehilim.
5. "v'Hu Rachum" is the middle verse of Tehilim.
(b) Question (Rav Yosef): Is the Vav of Gachon the first of the 2 letters in the middle, or the second?
1. Rabanan: Let's take out a Sefer Torah and count - this was done for a similar question!
2. Rav Yosef: They knew all the extra and missing letters, we do not.
(c) Question (Rav Yosef): Is v'Hisgalach the first of the 2 middle verses, or the second?
1. Abaye: This we can count!
2. Rav Yosef: Here also we are unsure - in Eretz Yisrael, they consider "Hash-m said...I will come to you in the cloud" to be 3 verses!
(d) (Beraisa): There are 5,888 verses in the Torah; Tehilim has 8 additional verses, Divrei ha'Yamim lacks 8 verses.
(a) (Beraisa): "v'Shinantom (you will repeat them)" - (you should review until) words of Torah are sharp in your mouth, so if you are asked, you can respond immediately.

1. "Say to Chachmah, you are my sister" (Torah should be as clear to you as (your prohibition to) your sister.
(b) (R. Chiya bar Aba): "When they speak with enemies in the gate" - even a father and son, or Rebbi and Talmid, when they engage in Torah, they become enemies;
1. "Es v'Hav b'Sufah" - in the end (Sofah), they will love each other.
(c) (Beraisa): "v'Samtem (you will put them)" - Torah is compared to a potion of life (Sam Tam, a pure potion);
1. This is as a man that hit his son; he put a bandage on the wound and told him, as long as the bandage is on, he may eat and bathe as he desires; if he removes the bandage, blisters will sprout.
2. So Hash-m told Yisrael: I created the evil inclination, and I created the Torah to fix it.
i. If you engage in Torah, you will not be overcome by it - "If you will improve, you will be lifted";
ii. If you do not engage in Torah, you will be overcome by it - "Sin crouches at the opening".
iii. Moreover - the evil inclination will be wholly dedicated to make you stumble - "Your desire is to it";
iv. If you want, you can rule over it - "You will rule over it".
(d) (Beraisa): The evil inclination is very harsh - even Hash-m calls it evil - "The inclination of man's heart is evil from his youth".
(e) (R. Yitzchak): A man's inclination renews itself every day - "Just evil the whole day".
(f) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): A man's inclination overpowers him every day and seeks to destroy him - "The evil one waits for the Tzadik and seeks to kill him;
1. Without Hash-m's help, the Tzadik could not prevail - "Hash-m will not abandon (the Tzadik) into his hands".
(g) Beraisa (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): If this disgusting one (the evil inclination) encounters you, drag him to the Beis Midrash;
1. If he is stone, he will melt; if he is iron, he will shatter (some texts - if he is iron, he will melt; if he is stone, he will shatter)
(a) (Beraisa): To marry him to a woman.
(b) Question: From where do we know this?
(c) Answer: "Take wives and bear sons and daughters; take wives for your sons, and give your daughters to men".
1. We understand, a man can find a wife for his son.
2. Question: Can a man always find a husband for his daughter?
3. Answer: He can give her clothing and property, so men will be eager to marry her.
(d) (Beraisa): He must teach him a trade.
(e) Question: From where do we know this?
(f) Answer (Chizkiyah): "See life with the woman that you love";
1. The 'woman' referred to may be, literally, a wife; or, it may stand for Torah.
2. In either case - just as it is a Mitzvah to take a wife for one's son or to teach him Torah, it is also a Mitzvah to teach him a livelihood.
(g) (Beraisa): Some say, even to teach him to swim.
(h) This may save his life.
(i) (Beraisa): R. Yehudah says, whoever doesn't teach his son a trade, he teaches him robbery.
(j) Question: This cannot be!
(k) Answer: Rather, it is as if he teaches him robbery.
(l) Question: The first Tana also said he must teach him a trade - on what do they argue?
(m) Answer: The first Tana says that it is enough to teach the son commerce; R. Yehudah says, he must teach him a trade.
(a) (Mishnah): Every Mitzvah of the father on the son (both men and women are obligated).
(b) Question: What does that mean?
1. Suggestion: Every Mitzvah the father must do for the son.
2. Rejection (Beraisa): A father is commanded to circumcise his son and redeem him (if he is a firstborn) - but a mother is not!
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): Rather, it means every Mitzvah incumbent on the son to do for the father, both men and women are obligated.
1. (Beraisa): "A man (will fear his mother and father)" - this only teaches that a man is obligated; "Tira'u (you (plural) will fear)" - this teaches, also a woman.
2. Question: If so, why does it say "A man"?
3. Answer: A man is able to fulfill the Mitzvah, a (married) woman is not (because she must be by her husband).
(d) (Rav Idi bar Avin): If a woman is divorced, she is obligated (to honor and fear parents) just as a man.
(e) (Beraisa): It says "Honor your father and mother", and "Honor Hash-m from your wealth";
1. The Torah equates the honor of parents with honor of Hash-m.
(f) It says "A man will fear his mother and father", and "You will fear Hash-m and serve him";
1. The Torah equates fear of parents with fear of Hash-m.
(g) It says "A man that will curse his father (or) mother will die", and "A man that will curse his G-d, he will bear his sin";
1. The Torah equates cursing parents to cursing Hash-m.
i. Clearly, hitting only applies to parents!
2. It is fitting that obligations to parents parallel obligations to Hash-m, for all 3 were partners in the child's creation.
(h) (Beraisa): There are 3 partners in creation of a child: Hash-m, the father, and the mother.
1. When the child honors his parent, Hash-m considers it as if He dwelled among them and they honored Him.
(i) (Rebbi): Hash-m knows that a child honors his mother more than his father because she entices him with things - therefore, He commanded to honor the father before the mother;
(j) Hash-m knows that a child fears his father more than his mother because his father teaches him Torah - therefore, He commanded to honor the mother before the father.
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