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Previous daf Kidushin 79
KIDUSHIN 77-80 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) [line 8] GAVRA, KIM LEI B'YUCHASIN - a man is an expert in matters of
lineage [and when he finds a man of superb lineage for his daughter, he will
annul his appointment of the Shali'ach]
2) [line 11] ITESA DAIKA U'MINASVA - a woman investigates [the situation
until she is certain that she has found the perfect husband] before she gets
3) [line 13] BOGERES (KETANAH / NA'ARAH / BOGERES)
A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters
her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah
(maidenhood). When six months elapse she becomes a Bogeres (adult).
4) [line 19] EIN BEIN NA'ARUS L'VAGRUS ELA SHISHAH CHODASHIM BILVAD
See previous entry.
5) [line 22] TZAFRA - morning
6) [line 25] MIKVAH SHE'NIMDAD V'NIMTZA CHASER - a Mikvah that was measured
and found to be lacking [the required minimum amount of 40 Se'in of
non-drawn water] (MIKVA'OS)
(a) Rainwater (Notfin) is Metaher (purifies) if it is collected in a cavity,
or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse
states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the
rainwater is flowing (down a slope, for example,) it cannot be Metaher.
(b) Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a
vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are
already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added.
However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugim of drawn
water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.
7) [line 25] KOL TAHAROS SHE'NA'ASU AL GABAV - all items of Taharah (ritual
purity), such as Terumah and the like, that were touched by people or
utensils that relied on this Mikvah to become Tehorim
8) [line 26] L'MAFRE'A - retroactively
9) [line 26] RESHUS HA'YACHID / RESHUS HA'RABIM (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS
HA'YACHID / BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM)
(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the
object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a
private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.
(b) This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a
Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a
question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited
to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e.
a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a
person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two
people frequent a certain area it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt
arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to
10) [line 28] HA'AMED TAMEI AL CHEZKASO (CHAZAKAH - the situation as it
stood until now, i.e. an assumption that is legally reliable)
(a) One of the most confusing aspects of the subject of "Chazakah" is that
the term "Chazakah" is used to describe so many unrelated laws. Just about
any logical clarification of a doubt (and more) is referred to by this name.
In our Sugya, it is referring to the rule that when doubt arises as to
whether the status of a certain person/object has changed, we assume that is
has not changed.
1. Such a "Chazakah" may be used in regard to a purely Halachic status (such
as Tamei/Tahor or Mutar/Asur), or in regards to a physical status that
effects the Halachah (such as an animal not being a Tereifah, or a Mikvah
not lacking the necessary amount of water). In our Sugya, the Chazakah of
the people or objects that were Teme'im leads to the opposite conclusion of
the Chazakah of the Mikvah not lacking the necessary amount of water.
(b) The word Chazakah is sometimes used to refer to what is actually a Ruba
d'Leisa Kaman (see Background to Yevamos 119:6), such as "Chazakah Sheli'ach
Oseh Shelichuso" (Chulin 12a). This is not the Chazakah we are discussing
2. A Chazakah may work forward in time (Chazakah D'Ikara), proving what
will be, or backwards in time (Chazakah D'Hashta), proving what was.
(c) Another Chazakah proves that if a man or woman have acted as mother and
son for a long enough time, it is accepted as strong enough evidence of
their kinship to cause them to be executed for having forbidden relations
with each other (Kidushin 80a). This too, is not the subject of our Sugya.
11) [line 32] TARTEI L'REI'USA - there are two negative factors. When the
person immersed in the Mikvah that originally contained 40 Se'ah of water,
but after his immersion found that it contained less than 40 Se'ah, we rule
that he is Tamei due to a combination of two negative factors: 1. The person
who immersed had a Chezkas Tamei, and 2. The Mikvah is presently lacking the
necessary amount of water.
12) [line 33] TERUMAH (TERUMAH / TEVEL)
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to
the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop
and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be
given (a single grain exempts the entire batch), the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that
remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi,
in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser,
to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and
it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei
(d) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of
the7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(e) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
13) [line 34] CHOMETZ - vinegar
14) [line 38] TOLIN - (lit. [their status is left] hanging) the status of
the Taharos that relied upon this Mikvah being valid are forever in doubt,
and receive the stringency of both Taharos and objects of Tum'ah
15) [line 4] SHECHIV ME'RA
(a) A Shechiv Mera is a person lying on his deathbed. Normally, in order to
transfer one's possessions to someone else, a proper Kinyan must be executed
(see Background to Kidushin 48:3:a), which will later be written in a Shtar.
The Chachamim instituted that a Shechiv Me'ra may effect a Kinyan and
transfer his property by simply requesting verbally that the transfer take
place. If he recovers, the Kinyan is not valid, because it is clear that he
executed the Kinyan only because he thought that he was going to die.
(b) However, if the Shechiv Me'ra gives as a gift only a portion of his
property ("Matanah b'Miktzas"), then the transaction does *not* take effect
until he makes a formal Kinyan. The reason is because by keeping some of his
property to himself, he shows that he expects to live and is not giving away
his property because he anticipates dying, and thus his gift has the status
as that of a healthy person and it requires a Kinyan to take effect.
16) [line 24] KAILEI LEI B'KAVA ZUTA - [the amount of brains that were
measured out to them (most people) were] measured in a small measuring
container, i.e. and they would not have the audacity to rely on their wisdom
to permit the woman to remain married to the man from whom she accepted
Kidushin according to the ruling of Rav
17) [line 40] KERUCHIM ACHAREHA - embracing her; always following her