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Kidushin 76

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 1] POTRIM ES HA'NESU'OS - they exempt the fully married women (married with Nisu'in) from Yibum and Chalitzah altogether

2) [line 8] MATZAS KUSI (KUSIM) - the Matzah of a Kusi
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove (Chulin 6a) and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Berachos 8:8 et al), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
(c) The Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail. For example, Matzos that were baked by the Kusim, besides being perfectly free of Chometz, were fit to be used for the Mitzvah d'Oraisa of eating a k'Zayis of Matzah Shemurah on the Seder night (Tosefta Pesachim 2:2, Kidushin 76a). However, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" -- Vayikra 19:14).
(d) One of the Halachos about which the Kusim were not careful was the requirement of Kidushin (betrothal) before marriage. Kidushin forms a bond of husband and wife that is only severed by a Get (bill of divorce), but Kusim would not give a Get after effecting Kidushin with a woman. It is possible that one Kusi effected Kidushin with a woman and another Kusi married her before she received a Get from her first husband, a situation that led Chazal to fear that many of their offspring might be Mamzerim (RASHI to Yevamos 37a).

See previous entry, (d).

4) [line 22] ISHAH KOHENES - a woman who is the daughter of a Kohen
5) [line 22] ARBA IMAHOS SHE'HEN SHEMONAH - four lines of maternal lineage, which are actually eight individuals

6) [line 23] V'EM AVI IMAH V'IMAH - and the mother of the father of her mother (i.e. her great-grandmother), and her mother (i.e. her great-great-grandmother)

7) [line 25] MOSIFIN ALEIHEN OD ACHAS - we add another one (maternal forebear to investigate) in addition to those

8) [line 26] EID BODKIN LO MIN HA'MIZBE'ACH UL'MA'ALAH - (lit. we do not check from the Mizbe'ach and above) If a Kohen has been performing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, his lineage is not questioned

9) [line 27] DUCHAN
(a) The Duchan was a platform with three steps that was hewn into the stone floor of the Azarah. Each step was half an Amah high and half an Amah wide. The bottom step rose one Amah above Ezras Yisrael. The highest step was level with the floor of Ezras Kohanim. The distance from the beginning of the lowest step until the Mizbe'ach was 11 Amos, all of which was Ezras Kohanim. The Duchan extended for the entire width of the Azarah (135 Amos).
(b) The main purpose of the Duchan was for the Leviyim to stand upon it facing the Sanctuary (their backs to the people) while singing to HaSh-m, when the Kohanim offered the daily obligatory public Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) or the Shelamim (peace offering) of Shavuos. They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing.
(c) The Duchan was also used for Birkas Kohanim (see Background to Kidushin 71:17) when there were too many Kohanim standing on the steps of the Heichal, the usual place for Birkas Kohanim. (They would face the people, with their backs towards the sides of the Azarah, in order that their backs should not be turned towards the Heichal.) (Notes of the TIF'ERES YISRAEL on the Beis ha'Mikdash Diagram TY #25 and TIF'ERES YISRAEL to Midos 2:6)
(d) If one served on the Duchan (a platform on which the Leviyim sang the Shirah), it could serve as proof that one is of prestigious ancestry, and that he is a Levi.

10) [line 28] SHOTREI HA'RABIM - officials (judges -- RASHI 76b) of the public
11) [line 28] GABA'EI TZEDAKAH - collectors or treasurers of charity funds
12) [line 31] ERCHEI HA'YESHANAH SHEL TZIPORI - the court of Yeshanah, a city near Tzipori

13) [line 32] MUCHTAV B'ISTERATYA SHEL MELECH - one who is [an ancestor of a man who was] listed [as a soldier] in the records of the army of King [David]

14) [line 35] MINTZU - quarrel
15) [line 41] 4 IMAHOS SHE'HEM SHTEIM ESREI - four lines of maternal lineage, which are actually twelve individuals

16) [line 42] 4 IMAHOS SHE'HEM SHESH ESREI - four lines of maternal lineage, which are actually sixteen individuals


17) [line 2] ZUG ACHAS - one additional *pair* of mothers (a mother and a grandmother)

18) [line 6] KESH'KOREI ALAV IR'ER - when a protest about her lineage has been issued (through the testimony of two witnesses in court, claiming that they heard people say that her lineage was flawed)

19) [line 16] MENUKIN B'TZEDEK - (lit. cleansed with justice) totally just
20) [line 17] "KULACH YAFAH RA'AYASI, U'MUM EIN BACH." - "You are all beautiful, my love, there is no blemish in you." (Shir ha'Shirim 4:7)

21) [line 19] "V'HAKEL ME'ALECHA V'NAS'U ITACH" - "It will become eased from upon you, and they will bear [the burden] with you." (Shemos 18:22)

22) [line 25] MEMASHKENIM AL HA'TZEDAKAH - the treasurers of charity funds are entitled to seize property as collateral for money owed to charity

23) [line 27] SERARUSA D'MASA - authority over the affairs of the town
24) [line 28] "SOM TASIM ALECHA MELECH...; MI'KEREV ACHECHA [TASIM ALECHA MELECH, LO SUCHAL LASES ALECHA ISH NOCHRI ASHER LO ACHICHA HU.]" - "You shall surely set over yourself a king...; from among your brothers [you shall set over yourself a king, you may not put over you a foreigner who is not your brother.]" (Devarim 17:15)

25) [line 29] MESIMOS - appointments (to positions of authority)
26) [line 34] METAPEL BEHU - he dealt with them (converts) [in a kind manner]

27) [line 35] REISH KUREI - the head inspector of weights and measures
28) [line 36] REISH GARGUSA - the inspector of irrigation (who makes sure that no one took water from the well on a day that was not designated for him to take)

29) [line 39] "V'HISYACHASAM BA'TZAVA BA'MILCHAMAH" - "And their lineage was verified in the army, in the war." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 7:40)

30) [line 40] TZELEK HA'AMONI - Tzelek the Amonite (Shmuel II 23:37), presumably descended from Amon (see Background to Kidushin 74:20)

31) [line 41] URIYAH HA'CHITI - Uriyah the Hitite (Shmuel II 23:39), presumably descended from Ches, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish People were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael

32) [line 42] ITAI HA'GITI - Itai the Gitite (Shmuel II 15:19), presumably descended from Gas, a people of the Philistines

33) [line 43] ITAI HA'GITI BA U'VATLAH - Itai the Gitite came and annulled it (the idol) (AVODAH ZARAH: BITULAH)
It is impossible to Mevatel (nullify) an Avodah Zarah that belongs to a Jew. A non-Jew can Mevatel an Avodah Zarah that belongs to a non-Jew, whether it is his own or it belongs to someone else, thereby removing its Isur Hana'ah. There is a Machlokes whether the non-Jew must do some abusive action to the Avodah Zarah in order to annul it (e.g. cutting off its nose) or it is enough to verbally annul it. (Yoreh Deah 146)

34) [line 44] YEFAS TO'AR
(a) The Torah (Devarim 21:10-14) permits a Jewish soldier to take home a foreign female prisoner of war, convert her, and marry her. The Torah permits this "only in recognition of the power of a man's evil inclination," in order to prevent the strong likelihood that some Jews might be overcome by their Yetzer ha'Ra and engage in forbidden relations with her.
(b) However, the Torah requires first that she undergo a thirty-day period of mourning for her parents (as well as for their idolatrous practices; Yevamos 48b, RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 8:5). This involves shaving her head, letting her fingernails grow (or be cut; see Yevamos 48b), and replacing the fine garments that she was wearing when she was captured with ordinary clothes. This is done in order to make her less attractive (RASHI to Devarim ibid., IBN EZRA to Devarim ibid.) and to signify purification and a new status (CHIZKUNI to Devarim ibid.).
(c) There is a Machlokes Rishonim regarding whether it is permitted for the Jewish soldier to have relations with the Yefas To'ar a single time, during the war, before bringing her home (RAMBAM, RABEINU TAM), or whether such an act during war is forbidden and that the soldier must wait until after her period of mourning is completed (RASHI, according to TOSFOS; see RITVA).

35) [line 44] MISTAPRIM KUMI - they would cut [their hair] in front (in the manner of Nochrim)

36) [line 45] MEGADLIM BELORIS - they would grow Beloris, the long hair grown at the back of the head by idol worshipping youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods, that was offered to their gods once a year.

37) [line 45] KARONIYOS SHEL ZAHAV - chariots of gold
38) [line 45] ROSHEI GAYASOS - the head of the battle troops
39) [last line] BA'ALEI EGROFIM - strong men
40) [last line] D'AZLEI LI'VE'USEI ALMA - they went into battle only in order to frighten the [enemy] people (but they were not actual members of the army, since they were not of pure lineage)

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