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Kidushin 72

KIDUSHIN 72-75 - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 1] VEHA'IDNA - and nowadays (in the time of those Amora'im who asked the question about Abaye's statement)

2) [line 4] BIRAM - Beis Baltin, between Syria and Mesopotamia (one of the mountain-peak stations of the Masu'os (signal fires), where messengers lifted lighted torches between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Benei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month)

3) [line 7] ARBA TINYANA D'GISHRA - the second lake or marsh below the bridge over the Euphrates

4a) [line 8] CHAVIL YAMA - (lit. the district of the sea) a region in Bavel
b) [line 8] TECHEILSA D'BAVEL - (a) (lit. the "Techeles" of Bavel) the choicest section of Bavel (with regard to pure lineage). The "Pesil Techeles" (the "string of Techeles") is the most important part of a four-cornered garment since through it one is able to completely fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis (ARUCH, 1st explanation); (b) the outer limit ("Tachlis") of Bavel (ARUCH, 2nd explanation)

5) [line 11] KUSA'EI (KUSIM)
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
(c) The Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail. For example, Matzos that were baked by the Kusim, besides being perfectly free of Chometz, were fit to be used for the Mitzvah d'Oraisa of eating a k'Zayis of Matzah Shemurah on the Seder night (Tosefta Pesachim 2:2, Kidushin 76a). However, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" -- Vayikra 19:14).
(d) One of the Halachos about which the Kusim were not careful was the requirement of Kidushin (betrothal) before marriage. Kidushin forms a bond of husband and wife that is only severed by a Get (bill of divorce), but Kusim would not give a Get after effecting Kidushin with a woman. It is possible that one Kusi effected Kidushin with a woman and another Kusi married her before she received a Get from her first husband, a situation that led Chazal to fear that many of their offspring might be Mamzerim (RASHI to Yevamos 37a).

6) [line 12] PERAS D'VURSI - probably Borsif on the Euphrates. Borsif, or Borsippa, lies some twenty miles south of the city of Babylon on the Euphrates

7) [line 13] SHOT MISHOT - Samosata, one of the fords of the Euphrates
8) [line 16] ME'IHI DAKIRA UL'EIL - further upriver than Ihi Dekira or Is, a city on the western bank of the Euphrates

9) [line 17] MA'AVARTA D'GIZMA - the ford or crossing of Gizma or Gidma, which is *closer* to the main settlements of Bavel than Ihi Dakira

10) [line 17] RETZU'AH NAFKA - [there is] one thin strip of land [that is included in the land of Bavel (with regard to pure lineage), that includes Shot Mishot, and when Rebbi Yochanan ruled that Ma'avarta d'Gizma was the outer limit of Bavel, he was only referring to the *main* territory of Bavel]

11) [line 18] CHILAZON NIHAVAND - Nahavand, a Median town south of Ecbatana
12) [line 22] "[VA'YEGEL MELECH ASHUR ES YISRA'EL ASHURAH;] VA'YANCHEM BA'CHELACH UV'CHAVOR NEHAR GOZAN V'AREI MADAI." - "[The king of Assyria exiled Yisrael to Assyria;] and placed them in Chelach and in Chavor, which is on the Gozan River (one of the tributaries of the Euphrates), and in the cities of Media." (Melachim II 18:11)

13) [line 23] CHILAZON - Chalvan (Holvan), in Assyria
14) [line 23] CHADYAV - Hadyeiv, Adiabena, a district of Assyria between the rivers Lycus and Caprus

15) [line 23] GINZAK - Gazaka, a city in the north of Media Atropatene, near the Caspian Sea

16) [line 23] CHAMADAN - present day Hamadan in Iran, southwest of the Caspian sea, previously Ecbatana, capital of Media

17) [line 24] NAHAVAND - Nahavand, a Median town south of Ecbatana
18) [line 24] MAI CHAVROSEHA? - Which are the towns in the vicinity of Chamdan or Nahavand where the Ten Tribes were settled?

19) [line 24] KERACH MOSHCHEI CHOSKEI V'ROMKEI - the walled city of Moshki, in Media, Choskei, in Assyria and the Fort of Romkei, in Media

20) [line 26] MOSHCHANI - Moxoene, a town east of the upper Tigris sources
21) [line 27] "[VA'ARU CHEIVAH ACHORI SINYANAH DAMYAH L'DOV, VELI'STAR CHAD HAKIMAS,] U'SLAS IL'IN B'FUMAH BEIN SHINAH; [V'CHEN AMRIN LAH, 'KUMI ACHULI BESAR SAGI!']" - "[And behold another beast, a second one, like a bear, and it was lying on one side,] and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; [and it was told, 'Arise, devour much flesh!']" (Daniel 7:5)

22) [line 30] MESURBALIN K'DOV - cloaked with flesh like a bear
23) [line 32] CHABARIN - (a) a nation that lived next to the Persians who were more destructive and violent than the Persians (RASHI); (b) a Persian nation (RASHI to Shabbos 11a); (c) Persian priests who were very wicked towards the Jews (ARUCH, TOSFOS Shabbos 11a DH v'Lo Tachas Chaver in the name of RABEINU YA'AKOV MI'KURVIL)

24) [line 32] MAL'ACHEI CHABALAH - angels of destruction
25) [line 35] HUMANYA - Humania, a town in Bavel, whose inhabitants were Greek and hostile to the Jews of Pum Nahara

26) [line 35] MASGARYA - the name of a town in Bavel
27) [last line] ISHTAMUD - they became apostates
28) [last line] AKRA D'AGMA - the name of a town in Bavel


29) [line 5] AD SHE'NIVRA TZADIK KEMOSO - until a Tzadik of his stature is created [to replace him]

30) [line 8] "V'NER ELOKIM TEREM YICHBEH U'SHMUEL SHOCHEV [B'HEICHAL HASH-M.]" - "And the flame of HaSh-m had not yet extinguished, and Shmuel was lying [in the sanctuary of HaSh-m.]" (Shmuel I 3:3)

31a) [line 9] HUMANYA - Humania, a town in Bavel, whose inhabitants were Greek and hostile to the Jews of Pum Nahara
b) [line 9] PUM NAHARA - the name of a place in Bavel, at the mouth of a river (Pum = mouth; Nahara = river), whose inhabitants were impoverished Jews

32) [line 9] "VA'YEHI K'HINAV'I U'FLATYAHU VEN BENAYAH MES VA'EPOL AL PANAI VA'EZ'AK KOL GADOL VA'OMAR 'AHAH HASH'M ELOKIM!'" - "And it was as I had prophesized, and Pelatyahu the son of Benayah died, and I fell on my face and I cried out in a loud voice and said, 'Alas, my G-d, Elokim!'" (Yechezkel 11:13)

33) [line 11] ISTANDERA D'MEISHAN - the governor of Meishan
34) [line 15] "VA'TAVEI OSI EL SHA'AR BEIS HASH-M HA'KADMONI..." - "And it (the wind) brought me to the eastern gate of the house of HaSh-m which faces eastward, and behold, at the gate entrance were twenty-five men, and I saw among them Ya'azanyah the son of Azur and Pelatyahu the son of Benayahu, princes of the people." (Yechezkel 11:1)

35) [line 18] "VA'YAVEI OSI EL CHATZAR BEIS HASH-M HA'PENIMIS..." - "And He brought me to the inner courtyard of the house of HaSh-m, and behold, at the entrance to the sanctuary of HaSh-m between the entrance hall and the altar were about twenty-five men whose backs were towards the sanctuary of HaSh-m, and their faces were eastward [and they were being destructive and bowing down eastward toward the sun.]" (Yechezkel 8:16)

36) [line 21] MAFRI'IN ATZMAM U'MATRIZIN ATZMAM KELAPEI MA'ALAH - they bared their backsides and they were defecating towards the Beis ha'Mikdash, in order to anger HaSh-m

(a) A Jew who owns a Nochri slave (an Eved Kena'ani) may release the slave from bondage in one of two ways: by accepting payment for the slave's release, or by giving the slave a "Get Shichrur," or bill of release. If the slave is not released in one of these two ways, he is still considered to be a slave for all Halachic matters (such as with regard to whom he is allowed to marry and what Mitzvos he is obligated to keep.)
(b) Some maintain that even if a master declares his slave Hefker (ownerless), but does not give him a Get Shichrur, the slave is still considered to be a freeman with respect to Halachic matters (Yevamos 48a, Gitin 38a).

38) [line 29] ZU DIVREI REBBI ME'IR - this (the Mishnah on 69a) is the word of Rebbi Meir

39) [line 39] "V'YASHAV MAMZER B'ASHDOD; [V'HICHRATI GE'ON PELISHTIM.]" - "And a Mamzer will dwell in Ashdod; [and I will smite the pride of the Pelishtim.]" (Zecharyah 9:6)

40) [line 40] KIDE'METARGEM RAV YOSEF - like Rav Yosef translated (interpreted) into Aramaic [citing the Targum Yonasan ben Uziel]

41) [line 40] YESVUN BEIS YISRAEL L'ROCHATZAN B'AR'AHON D'HAVU DAMU BAH L'NUCHRA'IN - the Jewish people will dwell with security in their land in which they had once been like strangers

42) [line 43] TZAVARNI TZAVARNI KOLARIN - groups and groups in neck chains (see RASHI, ARUCH)

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