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Previous daf Kidushin 55
KIDUSHIN 51-55 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) [line 2] MIGDAL EDER - an ancient settlement located on a hill halfway
between Chevron and Beit Lechem, in the present-day area of Gush Etzyon,
mentioned in Bereishis 35:21. According to Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel, it is
the place where Mashi'ach will reveal himself.
2) [line 2] OLOS
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos
may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17,
6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21,
7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be
slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the
owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of
the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the
Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of
flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban
(Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach
and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes
located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and
RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine
needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid., see
Background to Sotah 15:9).
(c) The hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal
is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
3) [line 3] ZIVCHEI SHELAMIM
(a) See previous entry, paragraph (a).
(b) Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from
male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may
therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern
part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the
animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and
southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a
meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought
as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely
burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the
silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the
Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount
of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified
in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the
Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were
offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his
guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the
city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for
two days and the intervening night.
4) [line 5] B'VA LACHUV BI'DEMEIHEN ASKINAN - the Mishnah (Shekalim 20a)
refers to bringing a Korban equal in value to the animal that was found [as
opposed to actually offering that animal itself] (when one finds an animal
that might be a Korban, he is responsible to make sure that a Korban that
was lost will be offered -- see Insights to Shekalim 20:1)
5a) [line 8] EIN MO'EL ACHAR MO'EL B'MUKDASHIN ELA BI'VEHEMAH UVI'CHELEI
SHARES BILVAD - one only transgresses the prohibition of Me'ilah repeatedly
when the object involved is an animal or a consecrated utensil (ME'ILAH)
(a) It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is
Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha...u'Nedarecha
Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to
Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah
1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a
Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b) If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives Malkos and
must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from
which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c) If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its
Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his
benefit plus an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of
the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim
(i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas
ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in
the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as
is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances. Therefore, it is
possible to transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah repeatedly with these
items (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
b) [line 9] BEHEMAH - an animal that has been consecrated as a Korban
c) [line 9] KLEI SHARES - the utensils used for the service in the Beis
6a) [line 1] TAHI BAH REBBI YOCHANAN - Rebbi Yochanan wondered about and
contemplated Rebbi Oshaya's ruling
b) [line 1] V'CHI OMRIM LO L'ADAM, "AMOD V'CHATEI BISHVIL SHE'TIZKEH"? - Do
we say to a person, "Transgress a prohibition in order that the offering of
this Korban should be to put right?" (lit. "in order that he should merit
[correcting the offering of this Korban]")
7) [line 3] MAMTIN LAH AD SHE'TUMAM U'MAISI SHTEI VEHEMOS U'MASNEH (PIDYON
KODSHIM - redeeming a consecrated object)
(a) If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash
and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be
sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling
price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the
object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes
Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from
(b) In our Gemara, the finder lets the animal graze and waits until it
develops a Mum (a blemish that disqualifies it from being offered on the
Mizbe'ach). He then brings two new animals in its stead, one as an Olah and
one as a Shelamim. He stipulates that one of them should be the replacement
of the found animal and the other should be a voluntary sacrifice.
8) [line 6] ASHAM
[I] ASHAM VADAI
The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The
animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first
three involve transgressions:
1. ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring
a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of
Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see above, entry #5a).
[II] ASHAM TALUY
2. ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in
Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return
what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive
atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26; see Background to Kidushin 52:36b).
3. ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah
Charufah (e.g. a slave who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of
them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether
he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22; see Background to
4. ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a
Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12; see
Background to Nazir 60:2).
5. ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by
a Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12; see
Background to Kidushin 35:24).
If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for
which one must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham
Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later
discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham
Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.
11) [line 10] SHE'LO BI'ZEMANO SHELAMIM HU (PESACH SHE'AVAR SHENASO)
Only kid goats or sheep during their first year may be offered as a Korban
Pesach. If an animal was designated as a Pesach but was not offered on the
first Pesach after its birth, it becomes a Korban Shelamim (since it may no
longer be offered as a Korban Pesach).
12) [line 10] BECHOR
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or
sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a
Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim
15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban
during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos
7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in
Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night. If the
animal has or develops a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its
first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be
slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell
it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or
weighed in the usual manner.
(c) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor
until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no
Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be
sold in a meat market in the usual manner, or bought in order to resell for
a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445). The Chachamim penalized a person who
intentionally inflicts a Mum in a Bechor, that the animal may never be
slaughtered (Bechoros 34a).
13) [line 14] CHATAS
If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be
Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must
bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban
14) [line 15] CHATAS BAS SHENASAH (CHAMESH CHATA'OS MESOS)
There are five Chata'os that are put to death by locking them up without
food until they die:
1. The offspring of a Chatas
15) [line 20] KONSAH L'CHIPAH V'HI MESAH ME'ELEHA - it is put in a vaulted
chamber to die
2. The Temurah (see Background to Yoma 50:10) of a Chatas
3. A Chatas, the owner of which has died
4. A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore
invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas
to atone for his sins
5. A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, the owner of which
brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)