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1) [line 6] ARYOCH - Shmuel, who was called by this name because he was compared to a king (Reicha means king or nobleman in Aramaic). (a) He was thoroughly versed in the Halachos of monetary matters and he sat in judgement like a king who presides over the court in his land (TOSFOS RI HA'ZAKEN, RASHI to Shabbos 53a); (b) the Halachah follows his opinion in monetary matters just like "Dina d'Malchusa Dina" ("the laws of kingdoms are binding") (RASHI to Menachos 38b); (c) the Halachah follows his opinion in monetary matters just like a king, and the name "Aryoch" is the name of a king in the verse "Aryoch Melech Elasar" - "Aryoch, the king of Elasar" (Bereishis 14:1) (RASHI to Chulin 76b; the name of this king was chosen because the word "Ari," "lion," is embedded in it -- TOSFOS to Shabbos ibid. DH Aryoch)
2) [line 6] SEFEIK LI, V'ANA EICHUL - (a) pick fruits that are definitely Orlah while I am not looking, such that I will have a doubt as to their source (lit. cause me a doubt), and I will eat them (RASHI); (b) pick fruits that are Safek Orlah (in doubt as to whether they are Orlah) for me (TOSFOS RI HA'ZAKEN, 1st explanation); (c) pick fruits that are definitely Orlah for me, since Levi ruled like the opinion that Orlah does not apply in Chutz la'Aretz (TOSFOS RI HA'ZAKEN, 2nd explanation)
3) [line 7] MESAFKEI SEFUKEI L'HADADEI - they would pick Orlah fruits for each other while the recipient was not looking, such that he had a doubt as to their source
4) [line 8] CHARIFEI D'FUMPEDISA - the "sharp" scholars of Pumbedisa, i.e. Eifah and Avimei, the sons of Rachba of Pumbedisa (Sanhedrin 17b)
5a) [line 10] SESOM SEFEIKA - (a) Seal up [my ruling that it is permitted to
eat] the produce that is Safek Orlah, i.e. do not announce this ruling
publicly (RASHI); (b) confiscate the produce that is Safek Orlah and do not
allow the offenders to eat it (TOSFOS RI HA'ZAKEN)
6a) [line 12] NIN - great grandson
7) [line 13] "MASHLICH CHEVEL B'GORAL BI'KEHAL HASH-M" - "none to cast the [surveyor's] line by lot in the congregation of HaSh-m." (Michah 2:5) - This is a curse that means that these people will have no heirs to divide up their inheritance.
8) [line 15] REBBI YOSI BEN DURMASKAH - Rebbi Yosi of Damascus (YA'AVETZ to Eruvin 19a claims that "Dumaskenin" refers to Damascus. The Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim (to Eruvin ibid. #90), Durmaskenin, also supports this supposition, since the translation of Damesek (Damascus) according to Targum Yonasan is Darmasek (Breishis 14:15).)
9) [line 17] REBBI ELIEZER HA'GADOL - Rebbi Eliezer ben Horkenos
11) [line 24] A"L - Amar Lei (Rebbi Asi to Rebbi Zeira (or Rebbi Yochanan to Rebbi Asi, according to the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on))
12) [line 25] LOKIN AL HA'KIL'AYIM DEVAR TORAH - in Chutz la'Aretz, a person can receive Malkos d'Oraisa for transgressing the prohibition of Kil'ayim
13) [line 29] HARKAVAS ILAN - grafting a branch from one tree onto another tree
14) [line 30] "ES CHUKOSAI TISHMORU, BEHEMTECHA LO SARBI'A KIL'AYIM, SADCHA LO SIZRA KIL'AYIM; U'VEGED KIL'AYIM SHA'ATNEZ LO YA'ALEH ALECHA" - "You shall keep my statutes. You shall not let your cattle breed with a different kind; you shall not sow your field with mixed seed; nor shall a garment mixed of linen and woolen come upon you." (Vayikra 19:19)
15) [line 30] CHUKIM SHE'CHAKAKTI LECHA KEVAR - statutes that I have instituted for you previously
16) [line 32] HARBA'AH
17) [line 36] HAVU SHAKLEI V'AZLEI B'URCHA - they were travelling (walking) on the road
18) [line 38] NESHAMTEI (SHAMTA/NIDUY - excommunication)
19) [line 38] LO CHAVRISU - [the laws of Kil'ayim are] not clear to you
22) [line 41] LO KAIMA LAN K'REBBI YOSHIYA...? - Do we not rule according to the opinion of Rebbi Yoshiyah? (see next entry)
23a) [line 42] AD SHE'YIZRA CHITAH U'SE'ORAH V'CHARTZAN B'MAPOLES YAD -
until he plants wheat, barley, and a grape seed with one throw of the hand
1. Many Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem forbids planting any vegetable or grain in a preexisting vineyard, as well as sowing grape seeds together with any vegetable or grain. However, Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem only applies to *sowing* grape seeds along with wheat *and* barley kernels in the same throw of a hand (Berachos 22a). According to this view, one who plants grapes, wheat and barley in such a manner transgresses both the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem and the prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im (see below; Tosfos Kidushin 39a DH Lo).(c) KIL'EI ZERA'IM refers to the prohibition of sowing any two different types of crops within close proximity to each other, as the Torah states, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim," - "Do not sow different species (together) in your field." (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.
1. The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify the distance that one must leave in between different crops.(d) HARKAVAS HA'ILAN refers to the prohibition of grafting a branch of one type of tree onto another type of tree, as the Rabanan infer from Vayikra 19:19 through a Hekesh (Kidushin 39a). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.
1. Fruits that grow on a tree that has been grafted are not prohibited to be eaten.(e) HARBA'AS BEHEMAH refers to the prohibition of mating together any two different types of animals or birds (Bava Kama 55b), as the Torah states, "Behemtecha Lo Sarbi'a Kil'ayim" (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.
1. Animals that are produced through Harba'as Behemah are permitted to be used (see Tosfos Chagigah 2b DH Lisa).(f) CHARISHAH B'SHOR VA'CHAMOR refers to the prohibition of doing any type of work with two different types of animals, as the Torah states "Lo Sacharosh b'Shor uva'Chamor Yachdav" (Devarim 22:10). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.
1. Some rule that the Torah prohibition applies to doing work with any two types of animals together (see Mishnah Kil'ayim 8:2, and Rishonim). The RAMBAM (ibid., Kil'ayim 9:9), however, rules that the Torah only prohibits doing work with one kosher and one non-kosher animal together, such as an ox and a donkey (Shor v'Chamor). The Rabanan prohibited doing work with any two types of animals, even if they are both kosher or both non-kosher.
b) [line 42] CHARTZAN - a grape seed
24) [line 43] ME'AREV BIZRANEI, V'ZARAH - he mixed seeds of various species (but not of grapes) and planted them (but not in a vineyard)
25) [line 50] RAV ZARA GINSA D'VEI RAV MISH'AREI MISH'AREI - Rav had the garden of his Yeshiva planted in separate rows [for each species]
26) [line 51] LAV MISHUM EIRUV EIRUVEI CHIL'AYIM?! - Was it not because he was trying to be careful not to transgress the prohibition of Kil'ayim?!
27) [line 1] ARBA AL ARBA RUCHOS HA'ARUGAH V'ACHAS BA'EMTZA - The Mishnah (Kil'ayim 3:1) states that one may plant up to five types of seeds in an Arugah (garden patch) which is six Tefachim long and six Tefachim wide without transgressing any prohibition of Kilayim. (To understand exactly how these seeds are planted in this small area, see Insights to Shabbos 84:1.)
28) [line 2] NOY - beauty, appearance
30) [line 7] NOCHEL ES HA'ARETZ - inherit the land (Olam ha'Ba, the World to Come -- RASHI)
31a) [line 8] OCHEL PEIROSEIHEN BA'OLAM HA'ZEH - he eats their fruits
(dividends) in this world
32) [line 9] KIBUD AV V'EM - respect for and fear of one's parents (see
36) [line 11] V'SALMUD TORAH KENEGED KULAM - and learning Torah is equivalent to all of them (all of the Mitzvos)
37) [line 13] YESEIRAH AL ZECHUYOSAV - in addition to [the sum total of] his good deeds (Mitzvos)
38) [line 16] SHE'IM HAYESAH SHEKULAH, MACHRA'AS - that if the totals of his Mitzvos and sins are balanced [and he has one of these Mitzvos in his favor], it causes the Mitzvos to outweigh the sins
39) [line 23] D'AVDIN LEI YOM TAV V'YOM BISH - (lit. they make for him a good day and a bad day) those people who have more Mitzvos than Aveiros have a good day prepared for them by receiving trials and suffering in this world (to punish them for the Aveiros that they did); those people who have more Aveiros than Mitzvos have a harmful day prepared for them by receiving affluence in this world (to reward them for the Mitzvos that they did)
40) [line 30] SHILU'ACH HA'KEN
41) [line 32] BIRAH - a large building where pitcher-shaped utensils are set into its walls and cornices for birds to nest (Beitzah 25a)
42) [line 32] GOZALOS - young birds or pigeons
43a) [line 35] LA'OLAM SHE'KULO TOV - the world that is completely good
44) [line 37] V'DILMA LAV HACHI HAVAH - but perhaps such a scenario did not (and will not) take place
45) [line 38] MACHSHAVAH RA'AH, EIN HA'KADOSH BARUCH HU METZARFAH L'MA'ASEH - HaSh-m does not forge an action out of an evil thought, i.e. He does not consider it as if he acted sinfully in accordance with his thoughts
46) [line 40] "L'MA'AN TEFOS ES BEIS YISRAEL B'LIBAM..." - "That I may catch the house of Yisrael in their own heart, [because they are all estranged from Me through their idols.]" (Yechezkel 14:5)
47) [line 42] IY SALKA DA'ATACH, SECHAR MITZVAH B'HAI ALMA, AMAI LO AGIN MITZVOS ALEI, KI HEICHI D'LO LEISI L'YDEI HIRHUR? - If you were to think that there is reward in this world for the Mitzvos that one does, why does the merit of the Mitzvos not protect a person (who is performing them) from thinking thoughts of Avodah Zarah, which can cause him physical harm as punishment?
48) [line 44] SHELUCHEI MITZVAH EINAN NIZOKIN
49a) [line 45] SULAM RA'U'A HAVAH - it was a weak ladder [that the boy used]
50) [line 46] "VA'YOMER SHMUEL, 'EICH ELECH? V'SHAMA SHA'UL VA'HARAGANI!'..." - "And Shmuel said, 'How can I go? If Shaul hears about it, he will kill me! [And HaSh-m said, 'Take a heifer with you, and say, I have come to sacrifice to HaSh-m.']" (Shmuel I 16:2) - HaSh-m told Shmuel ha'Navi that he should anoint a new king over the people of Yisrael in the lifetime of Shaul ha'Melech. Even though this was an explicit commandment from HaSh-m, Shmuel was afraid to go because the event was bound to be interpreted as treason against the king.
51) [line 47] ACHER - Elisha ben Avuyah, a Tana who became an apostate, and was subsequently known as "Acher" ("the other one"). Several reasons are cited to explain his abandonment of tradition (here and in Chagigah 14b-15b).
52a) [line 49] LISHNA DE'REBBI CHUTZPIS HA'METURGEMAN CHAZA - he saw the
tongue of Rebbi Chutzpis the Meturgeman (one of the ten martyrs of the
53a) [line 50] PEH SHE'HEPIK MARGALIOS - a mouth that emitted gems [of
54) [line 53] MATRONISA - Roman matron; aristocratic woman
57) [line 54] AVDAH HI MILSA, V'ITSI - she cast a magic spell, and he was
61) [last line] MAN NATRACH? - Who guarded you?