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1) [line 1] HAVAH AMINA LA'SATAN, "GIRA B'EINEICH" - I would have said to Satan (i.e. the Yetzer ha'Ra, the tempter -- see Bava Basra 16a), "This is an arrow in your eyes!" (i.e. this would have enabled me to defy him)
2) [line 2] AD'YADACH AL TZAVEREI DI'VERICH - (lit. While your hand is still on the neck of your son) (a) While you are still able to influence your son and he listens to your reproof, take for him a wife! (b) While you are still able to influence your son, take care to constructively criticize all of his bad traits and instruct him in proper behavior and attitudes!
3a) [line 10] MIKRA - scriptures
4) [line 29] CHOREV - Mount Sinai
5a) [line 30] D'SHADI DISNA A'REISHEI - who had hastily thrown a cloth (that
was unfit for the traditional turban or wrapped head covering of a Torah
scholar) upon his head
6) [line 32] MI ZUTAR...? - Is it little (i.e. of no significance)...?
7a) [line 35] LO TA'IM UMTZA - did not taste coal-roasted meat, a breakfast
food of that time
8) [line 41] VAV D'"GACHON" - the letter Vav in the word "Gachon" from the verse "Kol Holech Al Gachon..." - "What ever creeps upon the belly, [and whatever crawls upon all four, or whatever has more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, those you shall not eat; for they are an abomination.]" (Vayikra 11:42). This letter marks the midpoint of the letters of the Torah, and is a Vav Rabasi (a Vav that is meant to be written slightly larger in size than the print of the rest of the Torah)
9) [line 42] "DAROSH DARASH" - the words "Darosh Darash" from the verse "v'Es Se'ir ha'Chatas Darosh Darash Moshe..." - "And Moshe diligently sought the goat of the [Korban] Chatas, [and, behold, it was burned; and he was angry with Elazar and Isamar, the sons of Aharon, who were left alive, saying,]" (Vayikra 10:16). These two words mark the midpoint of the words of the Torah.
10) [line 43] AYIN D'"YA'AR" - the letter Ayin in the word "Ya'ar" from the verse "Yecharsemenah Chazir mi'Ya'ar..." - "The boar from the wood destroys it, [and the wild beast of the field devours it.]" (Tehilim 80:14). This letter marks the midpoint of the letters of the book of Tehilim.
11a) [line 46] CHASEIROS - words that the Mesorah (the authoritative
"Tradition," see Background to Kidushin 18:11) dictates that they be written
with missing letters
12) [line 49] B'MA'ARAVA - in Eretz Yisrael
14) [last line] MECHUDADIM - sharp
16) [line 1] "EMOR LA'CHOCHMAH ACHOSI AT, [U'MODA LA'BINAH SIKRA.]" - "Say to wisdom, 'You are my sister,' [and call understanding, 'friend.']" (Mishlei 7:4)
17) [line 5] "ASHREI HA'GEVER ASHER MILEI AS ASHPASO MEHEM; LO YEVOSHU KI YEDABRU ES OYVIM BA'SHA'AR" - "Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate." (Tehilim 127:5)
18) [line 12] "...ES VAHEV B'SUFAH..." - "[Therefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of HaSh-m,] Vahev in Sufah [and in the brooks of Arnon.]" (Bamidbar 21:14)
19) [line 14] "V'SAMTEM..." - "Therefore shall you lay up [these, My words, in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes.]" (Devarim 11:18)
20) [line 14] SAM TAM - a perfect elixir
24) [line 22] "HALO IM TEITIV SE'ES, V'IM LO SETIV LA'PESACH CHATAS ROVETZ. V'ELECHA TESHUKASO, V'ATAH TIMSHOL BO." - "If you improve yourself, you shall be forgiven. But if you do not improve yourself, sin lies at the door. And to you shall be his desire, and yet you may conquer him." (Bereishis 4:7) - The Gemara interprets this verse as referring to the study of Torah. It is rendered as, "Surely, if you study the Torah, you will be able to bear the burden of the Evil Inclination. But if you do not study the Torah, you will fall into its clutches. And moreover, its desire will only pertain to [causing] you [to sin.] But if you truly want to, you will rule over it.
25) [line 27] MISCHADESH - regenerates
27) [line 28] MISGABER - grows in strength
32) [line 32] "...UCH'FATISH YEFOTZETZ SALA." - (a) "...and like a hammer that shatters a stone into many fragments." (RASHI to Shabbos 88b DH Mah Patish); (b) "...and like a hammer that is shattered by the hard stone." (RABEINU TAM, cited by TOSFOS) (Yirmeyahu 23:29)
33) [line 33] "AVANIM SHACHAKU MAYIM..." - "Stones are worn away by water..." (Iyov 14:19)
34) [line 36] NITEN LAH MIDI V'LAVSHEYAH V'NICHASYA - he should give her something (a dowry) and clothe her and dress her
35) [line 36] KI HEICHI D'KAFTZU ALAH INSHEI - in order that bachelors should hurry (lit. jump) to marry her
36) [line 41] ISKA - trading merchandise
38) [line 45] SIPEK B'YADO LA'ASOS - it is within his power to accomplish [honoring his parents, since no one objects to his doing so]
39) [line 47] "KABED ES HASH-M ME'HONECHA..." - "Honor HaSh-m with your
possessions, [and with the first fruits of all your produce.]" (Mishlei 3:9)