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Kidushin 8

KIDUSHIN 7-10 - Dedicated by an admirer of the work of the Dafyomi Advancement Forum, l'Iluy Nishmas Mrs. Gisela (Golda bas Reb Chaim Yitzchak Ozer) Turkel, A"H.

(Vayikra 25:50-51) - "[And he shall reckon with him (the master) who bought him (the slave) from the year that he was sold to him to the year of Yovel; and the price of his sale shall be according to the number of years, according to the time of a hired servant shall it be with him. If there are yet many years, according to them] he shall give again the price of his redemption out of the money for which he was bought." (Vayikra 25:51)

b) MI'KESEF MIKNASO (EVED IVRI - a Jewish slave)
(a) There are two ways that a Jewish man can be bought as a slave by another Jew. Either he may sell himself because he is destitute, or he may be sold by Beis Din to pay back a theft. During his term as a slave, his master must support his family (Kidushin 22b). The master may not make his Eved Ivri do disgraceful work for him, nor may he treat him as one normally treats a slave. For example, if the master only has one pillow, he must give it to his Eved Ivri rather than keep it for himself (Kidushin 20a).
(b) If the slave was married before he was sold, the master has the right to give him a Nochri maidservant to bear him children who will become the slaves of the master (Shemos 21:4). (One who is not an Eved Ivri is forbidden to have relations with a maidservant.)
(c) An Eved Ivri is obligated to work for his master for only six years (Shemos 21:2) or until the Yovel year, whichever comes first (Kidushin 14b, 16a). At any time during his term, he may go free if he or someone else pays his master the money remaining from the sum that the master paid for him, prorated to the amount of time that he worked. If at the termination of six years he expresses his desire to continue life as a slave, the master takes the slave to Beis Din, who stand the slave near a doorpost and pierce his right ear and the door with an awl. This is known as Retzi'ah, and an Eved Ivri upon whom this is performed is called a "Nirtza." A Nirtza slave must continue to serve his master until the Yovel year (ibid. 21:6) or until his master dies. Whenever an Eved Ivri goes free, under most circumstances his master must give him monetary gifts valued at 15, 30 or 50 Sela'im, according to the various opinions (Kidushin 17a). This is known as Ha'anakah (Devarim 15:14).
(d) The Gemara (Kidushin 14b) cites a Tana that distinguishes between the Halachos of an Eved Ivri who sold himself and an Eved Ivri who was sold by Beis Din. According to this Tana, some of the above-mentioned Halachos do not apply to an Eved Ivri who sold himself. (For example, he cannot become a Nirtza, he does not receive Ha'anakah, etc.)

2) [line 16] MEKARVA HANA'ASAIHU - (lit. their benefit is immediate) one may more readily derive benefit from them [than from money]

3) [line 22] KOL KEMINEI?! - (lit. Is everything from him?) Does he have such power [to proclaim that he is using this to pay his debt of five Sela'im]?!

4) [line 24] KABIL KOHEN ILAVEI - the Kohen himself accepted it [as a substitute for the five Sela'im]

5) [line 25] SHAKIL SUDRA MI'BEI PIDYON HA'BEN - took a Talis or scarf [as a substitute for the five Sela'im] of a Pidyon ha'Ben

6) [line 26] L'DIDI CHAZI LI CHAMESH SELA'IM - for me it is worth five Sela'im

7) [line 30] ZAVAN - bought
8) [line 30] KUVI - possibly Bei Kuvi, a small village in Bavel, outside of Pumbedisa (RASHI to Kidushin 70b)

9) [line 32] MANEH / DINAR (CURRENCY)
(a) Equivalents of coins and amounts used in the Gemara:

  • 1 Maneh = 25 Sela'im = 100 Dinerin
  • 1 Sela = 4 Dinerin
  • 1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in
  • 1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonin
  • 1 Pundeyon = 2 Isarin
  • 1 Isar = 6-8 Perutos (based on Kidushin 12a)
(b) All of the coins listed above are silver except for the Perutos, which are copper
(c) 1 Perutah = the value of 0.018 or 0.022 grams of pure silver, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. (The first figure represents the opinion of Rabeinu Gershom and Rashi; the second, the Ga'onim and the Rif.) Based upon the recent (May 4, 01) value of $4.33/ounce or $1.70/gram, these values are $0.03 and $0.04, respectively.
(d) As such, 1. the values for 1 Maneh are $441.86 and $540.05 (at 6 Perutos/Isar) or $589.15 and $720.08 (at 8 Perutos/Isar); 2. the values for 1 Dinar are $4.42 and $5.40 (at 6 Perutos/Isar) or $5.89 and $7.20 (at 8 Perutos/Isar).

(a) It is possible to make a condition ("Tenai") in all Kinyanim (acquisitions; the word Kinyan connotes a change of ownership or status, such as sales, gifts, Gitin and Kidushin) such that the Kinyan will not take effect unless one or both of the parties involved fulfill the specified condition.
(b) A person may specify that the Kinyan will take place retroactively upon fulfillment of the Tenai, or that it should only take effect at the time that the Tenai is fulfilled. If he does not specify either way, and he uses the formulation "Im" ("if") in his Tenai, the Kinyan will only take effect at the time that the Tenai is fulfilled. However, if the person uses the formulation "Al Menas" ("on the condition that..."), Rebbi maintains that the person intends for the Kinyan to take effect retroactively upon fulfillment of the condition.

11) [line 40] NECHOSHES - copper
12) [line 40] DINAR RA - a poor-quality Dinar
13) [line 49] LO NAFIK - (lit. it does not go out) it is of such poor quality that it is not legal tender

14) [last line] MASHKON - collateral, a security


15) [line 4] BA'AL CHOV - a creditor
16) [line 5] "...U'LECHA TIHEYEH TZEDAKAH..." - "[You shall deliver him the pledge back when the sun goes down, that he may sleep in his own garment, and bless you;] and it shall be righteousness to you [before HaSh-m.]" (Devarim 24:13)

17) [line 7] AMSA - a maidservant
18) [line 7] PERITEI - [a number of] copper coins
19) [line 8] OSIVEI NASKA ALEHA - they put down a piece of bullion (a long bar of cast silver) as collateral for her

20) [line 9] AYAKAR AMSA - the price of the maidservant went up
21) [line 12] UR - bonfire, furnace
22) [line 13] SHADITINHU KAMEI - she threw them (the coins) down in front of him
23) [line 14] SHAKIL! LO BA'INA! - Take [them]! I do not want [them]!
24) [line 18] RASCHANA - an easily excitable person
25) [line 26] LO MIKARVA DA'ATA L'GABEI - she does not feel close to him
26) [line 34] ANI HA'SAMUCH ALEHA - a poor man who depends upon her
27) [last line] MAZBIN - selling

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