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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Kesuvos 43


(a) Rav Avina asked Rav Sheishes whether a girl whose father died and who is fed by her brothers, must give them what she produces, in the same way as she has to give it to her father whilst he is alive.
Will she be obligated to comply if her brothers instruct her to feed herself from the produce of her hands?

(b) Why might we say that what the girl produces should not go to the brothers?

(c) Rav Sheishes answered the She'eilah with a Mishnah in Almanah Nizo'nes. What does the Tana there say about the produce of a widow who is fed by the heirs?

(d) On what grounds did Rav Avina reject Rav Sheishes' proof from there (that the same would apply to a daughter)? Why might the products of a daughter be different?

(a) What happens when a man dies, leaving behind ...
  1. ... sons and a widow, and Nechasim Mu'atim (insufficient property to provide for both)?
  2. ... a widow and a daughter - and Nechasim Mu'atim?
(b) How do we reconcile this with Rav Avina, who just said that, when it is a matter of priority, a man prefers his daughter to live comfortably rather than his widow?

(c) Rav Yosef tries to disprove Rav Sheishes from the previous Mishnah, which stated that what a girl produces or finds, goes to her brothers after her father dies, even though she has not yet claimed them? What does Rav Yosef infer from there? How might this be a disproof to Rav Sheishes?

(d) How do we refute this Kashya?

(a) To whom is a man permitted to say 'Work for me but I will not feed you'? May he say this to his Jewish servant?

(b) What problem does this create with our Mishnah, which, to answer Rav Yosef's Kashya on Rav Sheishes, we just established when the daughter is not being fed by her brothers?

(c) Why can the Chidush not be the statement itself (that what she produced during her father's lifetime belongs to her brothers in the event of his death)?

(a) To answer Rav Yosef's Kashya, we establish our Mishnah by Ha'adafah. What is 'Ha'adafah'?

(b) What is now the Chidush? Why might we have thought that it should go to the brothers?

(c) What problem does Rava have with this answer, which seems straightforward enough?

(a) So Rava relearns Rav Yosef's Kashya on Rav Sheishes.
What problem did Rav Yosef have with our Mishnah, which says 'Ma'aseh Yadehah u'Metzi'asah, af-al-pi she'Lo Gavsah ... '?

(b) How then, does Rav Yosef interpret the Tana's words? What has he achieved with this?

(c) Why is it so obvious that what a girl finds after her father's death does not belong to her brothers?

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav also learns like Rav Yosef, though, according to Rav Kahana, his source is the Pasuk in Behar "ve'Hisnachaltem *Osam li'V'neichem* Achareichem" (written in connection with Avadim Cena'anim). How does he extrapolate Rav Yosef's Din from this Pasuk?

(b) Rabah disagrees with Rav Yosef and with Rav.
How does he interpret the Pasuk "ve'Hisnachaltem *Osam ... * "?

(c) Why should these belong to her (and not to the brothers) any more than the produce of her hands?

Answers to questions



(a) Rabah included 'Chavalos' in his list of things that do not go to the brothers.
What is the problem with that?

(b) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina establishes Rabah when the assailant wounded her in the face.
How does that answer the Kashya?

(c) When Rav Masna quoted Rav like Rav Yehudah did on the previous Amud, Rav Avimi bar Papi commented that Shakud said it.
Who is Shakud? What did Rav Avimi bar Papi mean by that comment?

8) Neherda'i and Rav Ashi dispute whether the Halachah is like Rav Sheishes or like Rav.
What is the final conclusion?


(a) The Tana talks about a father who arranged the betrothal of his daughter twice: initially, and again after her divorce. Finally, her second 'husband' died, leaving her still a Na'arah or a Ketanah.
Is a betrothed girl eligible to receive a Kesubah?

(b) Who receives the two Kesuvos?

(c) If however, she was already married to her second husband before he died, both Kesuvos go to the girl herself.
Why should the first Kesuvah go to her?

(d) What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(a) Why does the Tana present the case of a girl who was divorced once and widowed once, and not when she was widowed twice?

(b) This is a S'tam Mishnah like Rebbi.
What does Rebbi say?

(c) How do Rabah and Rav Yosef initially explain Rebbi Yehudah, who says in our Mishnah that it is the girl's father who receives the first Kesuvah?

(d) Then why does he not receive the second one, too?

(a) What does Rebbi Yehudah say in a case where the father arranged his daughter's betrothal, but she married after she became a Bogeres?

(b) Why does this present Rabah and Rav Yosef with a Kashya?

(c) So what is really the criterion according to them?

(d) At which stage is the Kesuvah written?

(a) What do we mean when we ask from when the Kesuvah is claimed? Who is to claim from whom?

(b) According to Rav Huna, he may claim the Manah (of a widow) and Masayim (of a Besulah) from the Eirusin and the Tosefes, from the time of writing. Why the difference?

(c) Rav Asi says that he may only claim both from the time of writing.
Why is that?

(a) Rav Huna speaks about a woman who produces two Kesuvos, one of two hundred Zuz, the other, of three.
Which one was dated earlier?

(b) What does Rav Huna rule?

(c) How do we counter the Kashya that, according to Rav Huna's ruling in the previous question, she ought to be able to claim two hundred from the first date and one hundred from the second date?

(d) So why can she not claim ...

  1. ... the full five hundred in Rav Huna's second ruling?
  2. ... the full three hundred in his first ruling?
Answers to questions

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