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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Kesuvos 111

KESUVOS 111 - dedicated anonymously in honor of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, and in honor of those who study the Dafyomi around the world.



(a) Rebbi Zeira initially learns the three (identical) Pesukim in Shir Hashirim "Hishba'ti Eschem B'nos Yerushalayim ... Im Ta'iru ve'Im Te'or'ru es ha'Ahavah" like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina. According to him - the three oaths that Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina extrapolates from these three Pesukim are not to take Eretz Yisrael by force, not to rebel against the authority of the nations, and that the nations for their part should not exploit their authority over Yisrael.

(b) Rav Yehudah disagrees. From one of these Pesukim *he* learns that the K'lei Shares must remain in Bavel (though presumably, due to the fact that they were not taken to *Bavel* following the second Churban, this will then be confined to the first Galus only - see Tosfos, unless the Asei extends to Rome in the second Galus).

(c) Rav Yehudah then learns the double oath, one on Yisrael not to rebel, and the other, on the nations of the world not to exploit their authority over Yisrael - from the double expression "Im Ta'iru ve'Im Te'or'ru es ha'Ahavah" which appears in each of the three Pesukim.

(d) Rebbi Zeira concludes that in that case there are really *six* oaths (two in each Pasuk), which he goes on to explain like Rebbi Levi. The additional three oaths that Rebbi Levi extrapolates from these Pesukim are - not to reveal exactly when the Galus will terminate (referring to the Nevi'im who know, or, as is popularly explained, that one should not make attempts at trying to work out when the Galus will come to an end), not to reveal the Sod ha'Ibur (the secret of the calendar, which was handed to Moshe at Har Sinai, or the secrets of Torah) to the Nochrim.

2) Rebbi Elazar explains that the expression used in all three Pesukim "bi'Tzeva'os O be'Aylos ha'Sadeh" comes to warn - that if Yisrael are not careful to conform with these oaths, then Hashem will leave their bodies open to abuse like the various kinds of deer that are hunted.


(a) According to Rebbi Elazar, the Pasuk "u'Bal Yomar Shachen Chaleisi, ha'Am ha'Yoshev Bah Nesu Avon" teaches us that living in Eretz Yisrael serves as an atonement for all one's previous sins. Ravina commented to Rav Ashi - that according to his interpretation of the Pasuk, the Navi referred to those who suffered in Eretz Yisrael, not just to those who lived there.

(b) Rav Anan learns a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from the Pasuk "ve'Chiper *Admaso* Amo" and that of "Mizbach *Adamah* Ta'aseh Li" - that being buried in Eretz Yisrael serves as an atonement for one's sins, just like the Mizbei'ach atones.

(c) When they informed Rebbi Elazar that Ula, who was a frequent visitor to Eretz Yisrael, had died in Chutz la'Aretz, he expressed surprise that Ula should have died in a Tamei land. When they told that his coffin had arrived in Eretz Yisrael - he said that being transported there *after* one's death is not quite the same thing as *dying* there.

(d) When that man asked Rebbi Chanina whether he should travel to Bei Chuza'a in Bavel, in order to perform the Mitzvah of Yibum - Rebbi Chanina replied that his brother had traveled to Chutz la'Aretz to marry a Nochris (refer to foot of previous Amud) and see what happened to him (blessed be the G-d who killed him)! Why did he want to follow in his brother's footsteps?

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel placed traveling from *Bavel* to another country in the same category as traveling from Eretz Yisrael to another country - because of the great Yeshivos that existed in Bavel (stressing the importance of living in a place where more Torah is available).

(b) He was referring specifically to moving one's residence - not to business trips.

(c) When Rabah and Rav Yosef said 'Even from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi' - they presumably meant in spite of its proximity.

(d) Rav Yosef placed in Cherem someone who moved from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi. Abaye said - that the man who moved from Pumbedisa to Estonia and died could have lived longer (if only he had followed the ruling of Rabah and Rav Yosef).

(a) Rabah and Rav Yosef both stated that Eretz Yisrael took in the best of Bavel, and Bavel took in the best of other surrounding countries. They cannot have meant to say that the men of Bavel married the most Meyuchas families of Eretz Yisrael (thereby improving their own Yichus) and likewise the men of other countries married the most Meyuchas women of Bavel ... - because we have learned in Kidushin that, when Ezra moved to Eretz Yisrael, he left Bavel more Meyuchas than Eretz Yisrael.

(b) What they must therefore have meant was - that when the cream of Bavel died, they were taken to Eretz Yisrael to be buried, and similarly, when the cream of the communities that surrounded Bavel died, they were buried in Bavel (so that the merit of the Torah that was studied there should stand them in good stead.

(a) Rav Yehudah says - that if someone lives in Bavel, it is as if he lived in Eretz Yisrael.

(b) In the time of Mashi'ach they will call Hutzal of Binyamin (in Bavel) 'the corner of refuge' - because whoever lives there will be spared from the pangs of Mashi'ach.

(c) Rebbi Elazar initially learns from the Pasuk "ve'Nasati Tz'vi be'Eretz Chayim (Eretz Yisrael, but not elsewhere)" - that anyone who dies in Chutz la'Aretz will not arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim.

(d) Rebbi Aba bar Mamal interprets the Pasuk "Yichyu Meisecha Nivlasi Yekumun" to refer to the dead of Eretz Yisrael and the dead of Chutz la'Aretz respectively. Rebbi Elazar interprets "Nivlasi Yekumun" - to mean that even a Shifchah Cena'ani who dies in Eretz Yisrael, will merit Techi'as ha'Meisim.

(a) According to Rebbi Aba bar Mamal - the Pasuk "ve'Nasati Tz'vi be'Eretz Chayim" refers to Hashem's handing over of Eretz Yisrael to Nevuchadnetzar, who moved as swiftly as a deer.

(b) Rebbi Elazar concedes to this explanation, and precludes the dead of Chutz la'Aretz from Techi'as ha'Meisim from the Pasuk "Nosein Neshamah la'Am *Alehah* ... ". Rebbi Aba bar Mamal uses the Pasuk for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of Rebbi Avahu (between this Pasuk and the Pasuk in Vayeira "Sh'vu Lachem Poh *Im* ha'Chamor" [the source for the Eved Cena'ani's title 'Am ha'Domeh la'Chamor']) - which teaches us that the "Am" in our Pasuk also refers to an Eved Cena'ani and a Shifchah Cena'anis, and that even they will come to life with their masters at that time.

(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan extrapolates from the end of the previous Pasuk " ... ve'Ru'ach la'Holchim Bah" - that anyone who walks four Amos in Eretz Yisrael will merit to come to life at Techi'as ha'Meisim.

(d) This means - that even the Tzadikim in Chutz la'Aretz will not come to life at Techi'as ha'Meisim *directly*. He does agree however, that they will come to life by rolling through tunnels to Eretz Yisrael and coming alive there, before sprouting out from the ground.

(a) Rebbi Aba Sala Raba refutes Rebbi Ila'a's contention (that they will roll along tunnels), on the grounds that this is painful, and there seems no reason why Tzadikim need to suffer this pain. So Abaye explains - that the Tzadikim will walk along the tunnels until they reach Eretz Yisrael.

(b) The reason that Ya'akov, and subsequently Yosef, found it necessary to trouble their children to carry them on the long journey to Eretz Yisrael - because they were afraid that, despite their righteousness, they may not merit to walk through the tunnels, and will have to endure the painful procedure of rolling through the ground (like Rebbi Ila'a's refuted contention - Agados Maharsha).

(c) In their quest to induce Rabah to come and live in Eretz Yisrael, his brothers cited him the Sugya abut Ya'akov and Yosef. Ilfa added to that the story about a man who fell in love with a woman in Chutz la'Aretz. When he heard the above explanations, however he never did anything about it until his dying day.

(d) Should Rabah move to Eretz Yisrael - they suggested, he could learn under the tutelage of Rebbi Yochanan.

(a) In the meantime, Rabah's brothers gave him some medical advice. They advised him not to ...
1. ... sit excessively - because it causes piles.
2. ... stand excessively - because it causes heart problems.
3. ... walk excessively - because it is bad for the eyes.
(b) They ...
1. ... then advised him to do - spend a third of the time doing each one.
2. ... meant, when they said that standing is always better than sitting (considering that standing, as we just explained, is bad for the heart) - that it is always better to stand whilst leaning than to sit reclining (on a bed or on a couch - which is per se, better than sitting on a chair).
(c) When they said that Yitzchak. Shimon and Oshaya said one thing: 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Yehudah bi'P'reidos'! - they meant that, according to ...
1. ... Rebbi Yehudah - breeding a mule whose mother is an ass, (but whose father is a horse) with a donkey is forbidden, because he contends with the possibility that we take into account, the seed of the father (in determining what the offspring is).
2. ... according to the Rabbanan - breeding a mule whose mother is an ass, (but whose father is a horse) with a donkey is permitted, because they do not take into account, the seed of the father.
(d) By Yitzchak, they meant Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha, by Shimon, Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi or Resh Lakish. The Oshaya they were referring to - was Rebbi Oshaya b'Rivi (the co-author of the Beraisos together with Rebbi Chiya).



(a) Rebbi Elazar learned from the Pasuk "Meisim bal Yichyu, Refa'im bal Yichyu" - that those who are lax will not arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim. "Refa'im refers ...
1. ... according to him - to those who are lax in their Torah-studies.
2. ... according to Rebbi Yochanan - to those who are lax by involving themselves in idol-worship.
(b) Rebbi Elazar conceded this point to Rebbi Yochanan. What he then learned from another Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki Tal Oros Talecha, ve'Eretz Refa'im Tapil" is - that whoever uses the lights of Torah, will be revived by the light of Torah at Techi'as ha'Meisim, but whoever does not, will not.
(a) When Rebbi Elazar noticed how upset this made Rebbi Yochanan, he consoled him by first quoting the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "ve'Atem ha'Deveikim ba'Hashem Elokeichem Chayim Kul'chem ha'Yom", which cannot be explained literally - because the Pasuk describes Hashem as a consuming fire, and how can one possibly cleave to a consuming fire?

(b) Consequently, Rebbi Elazar explains this Pasuk to refer to those who 1. marry their daughters to Talmidei-Chachamim (providing them with a dowry that enables them to continue learning) 2. who enter into business with Talmidei-Chachamim, running the business-side of the partnership, whilst the Talmid-Chacham provides the finances (to enable the Talmid-Chacham to sit and learn Torah undisturbed and 3. who use their own money to benefit Talmidei-Chachamim in various ways. The Torah reckons them here as if they had cleaved to the Shechinah Itself.

(c) And these same three groups of people will arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim, even though they themselves are not Talmidei-Chachamim.

(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba learn from the Pasuk "Vayatzitzu me'Ir ke'Eisev" - that Talmidei-Chachamim are going to sprout from the ground of Yerushalayim at Techi'as ha'Meisim, because we learn from a Pasuk in Melachim that "Ir" refers to Yerushalayim.

(b) The Tana of the Beraisa extrapolates from a wheat-kernel - that is buried uncovered yet it sprouts from the ground covered with a husk - that a Meis, who is buried clothed, should surely sprout from the earth at Techi'as ha'Meisim clothed (see Tosfos).The connection between a wheat- kernel and Techi'as ha'Meisim is - that a wheat-kernel, goes through similar stages of metamorphosis as a dead person: it too, dies before becoming reborn and sprouting from the ground.

(c) Rav Chiya bar Yosef learns from the Pasuk "Yehi Pisas Bar ba'Aretz" - that ready-baked bread the size of a human palm will appear already grown on the wheat-stalks, and so will fine-woolen clothes appear fully-grown on stalks or trees. Incidentally, this goes well with the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, who holds (in Rosh Hashanah) that the tree from which Adam and Chavah ate in Gan Eden was a wheat-tree.

(d) The Tana of the Beraisa (who does not seem to agree with Rav Chiya bar Yosef's Derashah, informs us that wheat-stalks will grow on top of the mountains like date-palms. That does not mean that everyone will have to perform feats of mountaineering in order to pick their food - because we learn from another Pasuk that Hashem will send a special wind that will blow the kernels from the stalk and extract the grain from the kernel, before depositing handfuls at a time in the fields below (see also Agados Maharsha).

(a) The Tana goes on to learn from the Pasuk "Im Cheilev Kilyos Chitah" - that each kernel will measure as much as the two kidneys of a large ox (though it is unclear how this conforms with the previous statement of the Tana". Perhaps this is not the same author).

(b) This does not sound so surprising after we are told about the fox who bored a hole in a turnip to give birth to her brood inside it. The remaining part of the turnip weighed - sixty liters (a weight of that time) according to the Tzipori scale.


1. Rebbi Yossi testified that, when they one of the three branches of mustard-plant belonging to the man from Shichin that his father had left him, broke off the main stem - they measured the mustard-seed from that branch and found that it measured nine Kabin. As for the wood from the single branch, there was enough to cover a potter's hut.
2. Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta (Rebbi Yossi's brother) testified - that they used to place a ladder against the stalk of cabbage which their father left them, in order to climb to the top.
(d) The Torah writes in Vayechi "ve'Dam Einav Tishteh Chamer". We learn from there that, in the World to Come ...
1. ... we will transport one grape by ship or by cart to our homes, place it in a corner, and extract wine without effort, into an earthenware jar.
2. ... each grape will provide thirty Sa'ah (seven hundred and twenty Lugin), because "Chamer" can also be read "Chomer", the equivalent of a Kur (which is thirty Sa'ah).
3. ... the wood of the stalk from which the one grape is picked - will provide sufficient fuel to cook a dish.
(a) Ravin learned from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Osri la'Gefen Iyro" - that there is not a vine in Eretz Yisrael that will not require an ass (no less) to transport its produce.
2. ... "ve'la'Soreikah B'ni, Asono" - that there will not be a non-fruit -tree that will not require at least *two* asses to carry its crop of fruit.
(b) Elaborating on "Osri la'Gefen Iyro", we learn from ...
1. ... "Ki'bes ba'Yayin Levusho" - that the grapes will be full of wine.
2. ... "ve'Dam Einav Tishteh Chamer" - that the wine will be red.
(c) And from ...
1. ... "Susoh" - that the wine will be potent.
2. ... "Chachlili Einayim mi'Yayin" - that it will be tasty (so much so, that everybody will shout out 'Li, Li'!).
3. ... "u'L'ven Shinayim mei'Chalav" - that it will be popular with old men too (as if the Torah had written "u'le'Ben Shanim mei'Chalav", that even the old men will prefer it to milk).
(d) Rav Dimi explains "Chachlili Einayim mi'Yayin, u'Leven Shinayim mei'Chalav" - to refer to K'lal Yisrael, who say to Hashem "Hint to me with Your eyes" ("Chucha Li - Agados Maharsha) because that is sweeter than wine, and show me Your teeth (smile at me), because that is sweeter than milk". Rebbi Yochanan puts it succinctly: Flashing a smile at someone, he explains ('Libun Shinayim' - showing him one's teeth) is more valuable than giving him a drink of milk.
(a) Rav Chiya bar Ada came three days late - because he was picking the clusters of grapes from the vineyard which his father had left him. This caused Resh Lakish to become concerned - because he was the Rebbe of his children.

(b) On each of those days - he picked three hundred clusters, on the first day however, the wine from each cluster filled one barrel, on the second day, it took two clusters to fill a barrel, and on the third day, three.

(c) He actually left more than half of the harvest on the vine - which he made Hefker.

(d) It is evident that Resh Lakish did not accept his excuse for coming late to learn with his children - because he told him that, had he not come late, he would have had a better yield still, since then the clusters would not have diminished each day (see Agados Maharsha).

(a) When Rami bar Yechezkel went to B'nei B'rak - he saw a river of honey that flowed from date-palms that had mixed with milk which flowed from goats. This caused him to refer to the Pasuk "Eretz Zavas Chalav u'D'vash".

(b) Rebbi Ya'akov ben Dusta'i used to walk from Lud to Ono, a journey of three Mil. He once made the walk early in the morning - and he had to wade up to his ankles through a river of fig-honey.

(c) The area of "Zavas Chalav u'D'vash" of ...

1. ... Tzipori, according to the testimony of Resh Lakish - was sixteen square Mil.
2. ... the whole of Eretz Yisrael, according to the testimony of Rabah bar bar Chanah - was twenty-two by six Parsah (the equivalent of eighty-eight by twenty-four Mil.
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