ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kesuvos 111
KESUVOS 111 - dedicated anonymously in honor of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, and in
honor of those who study the Dafyomi around the world.
(a) Rebbi Zeira initially learns the three (identical) Pesukim in Shir
Hashirim "Hishba'ti Eschem B'nos Yerushalayim ... Im Ta'iru ve'Im Te'or'ru
es ha'Ahavah" like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina. According to him - the three
oaths that Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina extrapolates from these three Pesukim
are not to take Eretz Yisrael by force, not to rebel against the authority
of the nations, and that the nations for their part should not exploit their
authority over Yisrael.
Rebbi Elazar explains that the expression used in all three Pesukim
"bi'Tzeva'os O be'Aylos ha'Sadeh" comes to warn - that if Yisrael are not
careful to conform with these oaths, then Hashem will leave their bodies
open to abuse like the various kinds of deer that are hunted.
(b) Rav Yehudah disagrees. From one of these Pesukim *he* learns that the
K'lei Shares must remain in Bavel (though presumably, due to the fact that
they were not taken to *Bavel* following the second Churban, this will then
be confined to the first Galus only - see Tosfos, unless the Asei extends to
Rome in the second Galus).
(c) Rav Yehudah then learns the double oath, one on Yisrael not to rebel,
and the other, on the nations of the world not to exploit their authority
over Yisrael - from the double expression "Im Ta'iru ve'Im Te'or'ru es
ha'Ahavah" which appears in each of the three Pesukim.
(d) Rebbi Zeira concludes that in that case there are really *six* oaths
(two in each Pasuk), which he goes on to explain like Rebbi Levi. The
additional three oaths that Rebbi Levi extrapolates from these Pesukim are -
not to reveal exactly when the Galus will terminate (referring to the
Nevi'im who know, or, as is popularly explained, that one should not make
attempts at trying to work out when the Galus will come to an end), not to
reveal the Sod ha'Ibur (the secret of the calendar, which was handed to
Moshe at Har Sinai, or the secrets of Torah) to the Nochrim.
(a) According to Rebbi Elazar, the Pasuk "u'Bal Yomar Shachen Chaleisi,
ha'Am ha'Yoshev Bah Nesu Avon" teaches us that living in Eretz Yisrael
serves as an atonement for all one's previous sins. Ravina commented to Rav
Ashi - that according to his interpretation of the Pasuk, the Navi referred
to those who suffered in Eretz Yisrael, not just to those who lived there.
(b) Rav Anan learns a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from the Pasuk "ve'Chiper *Admaso*
Amo" and that of "Mizbach *Adamah* Ta'aseh Li" - that being buried in Eretz
Yisrael serves as an atonement for one's sins, just like the Mizbei'ach
(c) When they informed Rebbi Elazar that Ula, who was a frequent visitor to
Eretz Yisrael, had died in Chutz la'Aretz, he expressed surprise that Ula
should have died in a Tamei land. When they told that his coffin had arrived
in Eretz Yisrael - he said that being transported there *after* one's death
is not quite the same thing as *dying* there.
(d) When that man asked Rebbi Chanina whether he should travel to Bei
Chuza'a in Bavel, in order to perform the Mitzvah of Yibum - Rebbi Chanina
replied that his brother had traveled to Chutz la'Aretz to marry a Nochris
(refer to foot of previous Amud) and see what happened to him (blessed be
the G-d who killed him)! Why did he want to follow in his brother's
(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel placed traveling from *Bavel* to another country
in the same category as traveling from Eretz Yisrael to another country -
because of the great Yeshivos that existed in Bavel (stressing the
importance of living in a place where more Torah is available).
(b) He was referring specifically to moving one's residence - not to
(c) When Rabah and Rav Yosef said 'Even from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi' - they
presumably meant in spite of its proximity.
(d) Rav Yosef placed in Cherem someone who moved from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi.
Abaye said - that the man who moved from Pumbedisa to Estonia and died could
have lived longer (if only he had followed the ruling of Rabah and Rav
(a) Rabah and Rav Yosef both stated that Eretz Yisrael took in the best of
Bavel, and Bavel took in the best of other surrounding countries. They
cannot have meant to say that the men of Bavel married the most Meyuchas
families of Eretz Yisrael (thereby improving their own Yichus) and likewise
the men of other countries married the most Meyuchas women of Bavel ... -
because we have learned in Kidushin that, when Ezra moved to Eretz Yisrael,
he left Bavel more Meyuchas than Eretz Yisrael.
(b) What they must therefore have meant was - that when the cream of Bavel
died, they were taken to Eretz Yisrael to be buried, and similarly, when the
cream of the communities that surrounded Bavel died, they were buried in
Bavel (so that the merit of the Torah that was studied there should stand
them in good stead.
(a) Rav Yehudah says - that if someone lives in Bavel, it is as if he lived
in Eretz Yisrael.
(b) In the time of Mashi'ach they will call Hutzal of Binyamin (in Bavel)
'the corner of refuge' - because whoever lives there will be spared from the
pangs of Mashi'ach.
(c) Rebbi Elazar initially learns from the Pasuk "ve'Nasati Tz'vi be'Eretz
Chayim (Eretz Yisrael, but not elsewhere)" - that anyone who dies in Chutz
la'Aretz will not arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim.
(d) Rebbi Aba bar Mamal interprets the Pasuk "Yichyu Meisecha Nivlasi
Yekumun" to refer to the dead of Eretz Yisrael and the dead of Chutz
la'Aretz respectively. Rebbi Elazar interprets "Nivlasi Yekumun" - to mean
that even a Shifchah Cena'ani who dies in Eretz Yisrael, will merit Techi'as
(a) According to Rebbi Aba bar Mamal - the Pasuk "ve'Nasati Tz'vi be'Eretz
Chayim" refers to Hashem's handing over of Eretz Yisrael to Nevuchadnetzar,
who moved as swiftly as a deer.
(b) Rebbi Elazar concedes to this explanation, and precludes the dead of
Chutz la'Aretz from Techi'as ha'Meisim from the Pasuk "Nosein Neshamah la'Am
*Alehah* ... ". Rebbi Aba bar Mamal uses the Pasuk for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah'
of Rebbi Avahu (between this Pasuk and the Pasuk in Vayeira "Sh'vu Lachem
Poh *Im* ha'Chamor" [the source for the Eved Cena'ani's title 'Am ha'Domeh
la'Chamor']) - which teaches us that the "Am" in our Pasuk also refers to an
Eved Cena'ani and a Shifchah Cena'anis, and that even they will come to life
with their masters at that time.
(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan extrapolates from the end of
the previous Pasuk " ... ve'Ru'ach la'Holchim Bah" - that anyone who walks
four Amos in Eretz Yisrael will merit to come to life at Techi'as ha'Meisim.
(d) This means - that even the Tzadikim in Chutz la'Aretz will not come to
life at Techi'as ha'Meisim *directly*. He does agree however, that they will
come to life by rolling through tunnels to Eretz Yisrael and coming alive
there, before sprouting out from the ground.
(a) Rebbi Aba Sala Raba refutes Rebbi Ila'a's contention (that they will
roll along tunnels), on the grounds that this is painful, and there seems no
reason why Tzadikim need to suffer this pain. So Abaye explains - that the
Tzadikim will walk along the tunnels until they reach Eretz Yisrael.
(b) The reason that Ya'akov, and subsequently Yosef, found it necessary to
trouble their children to carry them on the long journey to Eretz Yisrael -
because they were afraid that, despite their righteousness, they may not
merit to walk through the tunnels, and will have to endure the painful
procedure of rolling through the ground (like Rebbi Ila'a's refuted
contention - Agados Maharsha).
(c) In their quest to induce Rabah to come and live in Eretz Yisrael, his
brothers cited him the Sugya abut Ya'akov and Yosef. Ilfa added to that the
story about a man who fell in love with a woman in Chutz la'Aretz. When he
heard the above explanations, however he never did anything about it until
his dying day.
(d) Should Rabah move to Eretz Yisrael - they suggested, he could learn
under the tutelage of Rebbi Yochanan.
(a) In the meantime, Rabah's brothers gave him some medical advice. They
advised him not to ...
1. ... sit excessively - because it causes piles.
(b) They ...
2. ... stand excessively - because it causes heart problems.
3. ... walk excessively - because it is bad for the eyes.
1. ... then advised him to do - spend a third of the time doing each one.
(c) When they said that Yitzchak. Shimon and Oshaya said one thing:
'Halachah ke'Rebbi Yehudah bi'P'reidos'! - they meant that, according to ...
2. ... meant, when they said that standing is always better than sitting
(considering that standing, as we just explained, is bad for the heart) -
that it is always better to stand whilst leaning than to sit reclining (on a
bed or on a couch - which is per se, better than sitting on a chair).
1. ... Rebbi Yehudah - breeding a mule whose mother is an ass, (but whose
father is a horse) with a donkey is forbidden, because he contends with the
possibility that we take into account, the seed of the father (in
determining what the offspring is).
(d) By Yitzchak, they meant Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha, by Shimon, Rebbi Shimon
ben Pazi or Resh Lakish. The Oshaya they were referring to - was Rebbi
Oshaya b'Rivi (the co-author of the Beraisos together with Rebbi Chiya).
2. ... according to the Rabbanan - breeding a mule whose mother is an ass,
(but whose father is a horse) with a donkey is permitted, because they do
not take into account, the seed of the father.
(a) Rebbi Elazar learned from the Pasuk "Meisim bal Yichyu, Refa'im bal
Yichyu" - that those who are lax will not arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim.
"Refa'im refers ...
1. ... according to him - to those who are lax in their Torah-studies.
(b) Rebbi Elazar conceded this point to Rebbi Yochanan. What he then learned
from another Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ki Tal Oros Talecha, ve'Eretz Refa'im Tapil"
is - that whoever uses the lights of Torah, will be revived by the light of
Torah at Techi'as ha'Meisim, but whoever does not, will not.
2. ... according to Rebbi Yochanan - to those who are lax by involving
themselves in idol-worship.
(a) When Rebbi Elazar noticed how upset this made Rebbi Yochanan, he
consoled him by first quoting the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "ve'Atem ha'Deveikim
ba'Hashem Elokeichem Chayim Kul'chem ha'Yom", which cannot be explained
literally - because the Pasuk describes Hashem as a consuming fire, and how
can one possibly cleave to a consuming fire?
(b) Consequently, Rebbi Elazar explains this Pasuk to refer to those who 1.
marry their daughters to Talmidei-Chachamim (providing them with a dowry
that enables them to continue learning) 2. who enter into business with
Talmidei-Chachamim, running the business-side of the partnership, whilst the
Talmid-Chacham provides the finances (to enable the Talmid-Chacham to sit
and learn Torah undisturbed and 3. who use their own money to benefit
Talmidei-Chachamim in various ways. The Torah reckons them here as if they
had cleaved to the Shechinah Itself.
(c) And these same three groups of people will arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim,
even though they themselves are not Talmidei-Chachamim.
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba learn from the Pasuk "Vayatzitzu me'Ir ke'Eisev" -
that Talmidei-Chachamim are going to sprout from the ground of Yerushalayim
at Techi'as ha'Meisim, because we learn from a Pasuk in Melachim that "Ir"
refers to Yerushalayim.
(b) The Tana of the Beraisa extrapolates from a wheat-kernel - that is
buried uncovered yet it sprouts from the ground covered with a husk - that a
Meis, who is buried clothed, should surely sprout from the earth at Techi'as
ha'Meisim clothed (see Tosfos).The connection between a wheat- kernel and
Techi'as ha'Meisim is - that a wheat-kernel, goes through similar stages of
metamorphosis as a dead person: it too, dies before becoming reborn and
sprouting from the ground.
(c) Rav Chiya bar Yosef learns from the Pasuk "Yehi Pisas Bar ba'Aretz" -
that ready-baked bread the size of a human palm will appear already grown on
the wheat-stalks, and so will fine-woolen clothes appear fully-grown on
stalks or trees. Incidentally, this goes well with the opinion of Rebbi
Yehudah, who holds (in Rosh Hashanah) that the tree from which Adam and
Chavah ate in Gan Eden was a wheat-tree.
(d) The Tana of the Beraisa (who does not seem to agree with Rav Chiya bar
Yosef's Derashah, informs us that wheat-stalks will grow on top of the
mountains like date-palms. That does not mean that everyone will have to
perform feats of mountaineering in order to pick their food - because we
learn from another Pasuk that Hashem will send a special wind that will blow
the kernels from the stalk and extract the grain from the kernel, before
depositing handfuls at a time in the fields below (see also Agados
(a) The Tana goes on to learn from the Pasuk "Im Cheilev Kilyos Chitah" -
that each kernel will measure as much as the two kidneys of a large ox
(though it is unclear how this conforms with the previous statement of the
Tana". Perhaps this is not the same author).
(b) This does not sound so surprising after we are told about the fox who
bored a hole in a turnip to give birth to her brood inside it. The remaining
part of the turnip weighed - sixty liters (a weight of that time) according
to the Tzipori scale.
1. Rebbi Yossi testified that, when they one of the three branches of
mustard-plant belonging to the man from Shichin that his father had left
him, broke off the main stem - they measured the mustard-seed from that
branch and found that it measured nine Kabin. As for the wood from the
single branch, there was enough to cover a potter's hut.
(d) The Torah writes in Vayechi "ve'Dam Einav Tishteh Chamer". We learn from
there that, in the World to Come ...
2. Rebbi Shimon ben Chalafta (Rebbi Yossi's brother) testified - that they
used to place a ladder against the stalk of cabbage which their father left
them, in order to climb to the top.
1. ... we will transport one grape by ship or by cart to our homes, place it
in a corner, and extract wine without effort, into an earthenware jar.
2. ... each grape will provide thirty Sa'ah (seven hundred and twenty
Lugin), because "Chamer" can also be read "Chomer", the equivalent of a Kur
(which is thirty Sa'ah).
3. ... the wood of the stalk from which the one grape is picked - will
provide sufficient fuel to cook a dish.
(a) Ravin learned from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Osri la'Gefen Iyro" - that there is not a vine in Eretz Yisrael that
will not require an ass (no less) to transport its produce.
(b) Elaborating on "Osri la'Gefen Iyro", we learn from ...
2. ... "ve'la'Soreikah B'ni, Asono" - that there will not be a
non-fruit -tree that will not require at least *two* asses to carry its crop
1. ... "Ki'bes ba'Yayin Levusho" - that the grapes will be full of wine.
(c) And from ...
2. ... "ve'Dam Einav Tishteh Chamer" - that the wine will be red.
1. ... "Susoh" - that the wine will be potent.
(d) Rav Dimi explains "Chachlili Einayim mi'Yayin, u'Leven Shinayim
mei'Chalav" - to refer to K'lal Yisrael, who say to Hashem "Hint to me with
Your eyes" ("Chucha Li - Agados Maharsha) because that is sweeter than wine,
and show me Your teeth (smile at me), because that is sweeter than milk".
Rebbi Yochanan puts it succinctly: Flashing a smile at someone, he explains
('Libun Shinayim' - showing him one's teeth) is more valuable than giving
him a drink of milk.
2. ... "Chachlili Einayim mi'Yayin" - that it will be tasty (so much so,
that everybody will shout out 'Li, Li'!).
3. ... "u'L'ven Shinayim mei'Chalav" - that it will be popular with old men
too (as if the Torah had written "u'le'Ben Shanim mei'Chalav", that even the
old men will prefer it to milk).
(a) Rav Chiya bar Ada came three days late - because he was picking the
clusters of grapes from the vineyard which his father had left him. This
caused Resh Lakish to become concerned - because he was the Rebbe of his
(b) On each of those days - he picked three hundred clusters, on the first
day however, the wine from each cluster filled one barrel, on the second
day, it took two clusters to fill a barrel, and on the third day, three.
(c) He actually left more than half of the harvest on the vine - which he
(d) It is evident that Resh Lakish did not accept his excuse for coming late
to learn with his children - because he told him that, had he not come late,
he would have had a better yield still, since then the clusters would not
have diminished each day (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) When Rami bar Yechezkel went to B'nei B'rak - he saw a river of honey
that flowed from date-palms that had mixed with milk which flowed from
goats. This caused him to refer to the Pasuk "Eretz Zavas Chalav u'D'vash".
(b) Rebbi Ya'akov ben Dusta'i used to walk from Lud to Ono, a journey of
three Mil. He once made the walk early in the morning - and he had to wade
up to his ankles through a river of fig-honey.
(c) The area of "Zavas Chalav u'D'vash" of ...
1. ... Tzipori, according to the testimony of Resh Lakish - was sixteen
2. ... the whole of Eretz Yisrael, according to the testimony of Rabah bar
bar Chanah - was twenty-two by six Parsah (the equivalent of eighty-eight by