ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kesuvos 61
KESUVOS 61 - dedicated by Uri Wolfson and Naftali Wilk in honor of Rav
Mordechai Rabin of Har Nof, a true beacon of Torah and Chesed.
(a) If a man wants ...
1. ... to hire a wet-nurse for their baby but his wife wants to feed him
herself - nothing stands before her physical pain (of retaining her milk),
and we listen to her.
2. ... his wife to feed and she does not want to (assuming that it is not
her family Minhag to do so) - she is exempt from feeding (because she does
not 'go down with him').
3. ... his wife to feed and she does not want to (assuming that it is her
family Minhag to do so but not his) - she does not need to feed (because she
'goes up with him'.
1. Rav Huna learns this from the Pasuk "ve'Hi Be'ulas Ba'al" - 'ba'Aliyaso
shel Ba'al ve'Lo bi'Yeridaso shel Ba'al'.
2. ... Rebbi Elazar learns it from the Pasuk "Ki Hi Haysah Eim Kol
*Chai*" - *'le'Chayim* Nitnah ve'Lo le'Tza'ar Nitnah'.
(a) A woman who brings in ...
1. ... one Shifchah, becomes exempt from grinding, baking and washing
clothes, but not from all other Melachos. She cannot claim that that is why
she brought in a Shifchah - because her husband can retort that the one
Shifchah is sufficient to serve him, but not her.
(b) He cannot however, present the same argument when she brings in four
Shefachos - because then she can retort that four Shefachos are sufficient
to contend with any amount of guests.
2. ... two Shefachos, also becomes exempt from cooking and feeding her baby,
but not from all other Melachos - because, if she claims that she has
brought two Shefachos, he can retort that the two Shefachos are sufficient
to look after both of their needs, but who will look after the guests?
3. ... three Shefachos, also becomes exempt from making her husband's bed
and working in wool but not from all other Melachos, in spite of the extra
Shifchah - because her husband can retort that an extra Shifchah means more
(a) Rav Chana and some say Rav Shmuel bar Nachmeini explains that the
number of Shefachos that the woman brings in (of which our Mishnah speaks)
incorporates when she does not necessarily bring in the Shefachos, but that,
due to her large dowry, she has the means to do so.
(b) When the Tana of the Beraisa writes that 'Tzimtzemah Lo mi'she'Lah' is
the same as bringing in a Shifchah (as part of the Nidunyah) - he refers to
a woman who scrimped from the extras that her husband is obligated to give
her (such as a box of Besamim each week), and with the proceeds she
(c) The three Melachos that Rav Yitzchak bar Chananya Amar Rav Huna
'obligates' a woman to perform on behalf of her husband, irrespective of how
many Shefachos she may have - are pouring her husband a cup of wine whilst
he is holding the cup (see Rosh Si'man 24), spreading the sheet on his bed
(as opposed to making the bed in our Mishnah - see Tosfos Rid) and washing
his face, hands and feet (or even pouring the water into the basin for that
purpose - see Ran) all of which are not really obligatory, but merely
strongly advisable, seeing as they are acts of love.
(d) Rav Yitzchak bar Chananya Amar Rav Huna forbids the same three
Melachos - when the woman is a Nidah (because it may lead to intimacy).
(a) Rava permits a woman to spread the sheet on her husband's bed even when
she is a Nidah - as long as it is not in his presence.
(b) Shmuel's wife poured him a cup of wine during her days of Libun (the
week of Taharah following the Nidus - see Tosfos), with her left hand.
(c) Rava, Abaye and Rav Papa permitted a Nidah to pour her husband a cup of
wine - and place it on another surface (other than in his hand), such as the
surface of a barrel, on his cushion or an a bench.
(a) Rav Huna states that most foods can safely be served to the Shamash
after the guests have finished eating. The two exceptions are (juicy) meat
and (old) wine (Rav Chisda) - because they have a particularly tantalizing
(b) This Halachah vis-a-vis meat applies all the year round - but regarding
wine, only in the season of Tamuz, when the heat brings out the full extent
of the strong aroma.
(c) Similar incidents occurred to Rav Anan bar Tachlifa when he was once
standing in front of Shmuel whom they served a certain species of mushroom,
and to Rav Ashi when they served Rav Kahana slices of turnip - both of them
would have been in grave danger had they not been given some to eat.
(d) According to Rav Papa, this danger extends even to fat dates. The two
conditions that a food requires to fall into this category - are a strong
smell and acid content.
(a) Avuhah bar Ihi and Menimin bar Ihi differed slightly in the way they
would serve the waiters who served their Se'udos. Eliyahu would appear - to
the one who served the waiter from each dish, but not to the one who served
from only one dish.
(b) And he would also appear to one of the two Chasidim (possibly Rav Mari
and Rav Pinchas, sons of Rav Chisda) - who would serve the waiter from each
dish before he himself and the guests had been served, but not to the other,
who would only serve him afterwards.
(a) When Azgur Malka's household manager passed by holding the tray of food
to serve at the royal table - Mar Zutra had a desire to eat from the food,
and his face turned white. Rav Ashi dipped his finger into the food and
placed it in his mouth (see Agados Maharsha).
(b) When the royal guards questioned him as to why he had spoiled the king's
food - he replied that the food was unfit to serve to a king, seeing as it
contained the meat of a leprous pig.
(c) When, upon inspection, they were unable to verify Rav Ashi's
accusation - he suggested that they should examine a different part of the
dish, where they did in fact, discover leprous pig's meat.
(d) He explained to his colleagues that he was not relying on a miracle,
when he leveled the accusation - but that he had seen signs of leprosy on
(a) When the woman refused to accept the Roman's proposal for marriage - he
brought a pomegranate and peeled it and ate it in front of her, but did not
offer her any.
(b) She endangered herself by - swallowing the spittle that collected in her
mouth as a result of the pomegranate acid, which she smelt but was unable to
eat, causing her face and stomach to swell.
(c) He got her to accept his proposal - by offering to cure her if she would
(d) He then cured her - by instructing her to eject all the spittle that
collected in her mouth, until eventually, the dangerous acids emerged in the
form of a green strip resembling a long, thin palm-branch.
(a) The author of our Mishnah (which requires a woman to manufacture
*woolen* clothes - but not linen ones), is Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Yehudah
differentiates between wool and linen - because linen creates a foul smell
in one's mouth (where one needs to place the threads in order to wet them),
and causes a swelling of the lips.
(b) The Tana of the Beraisa does not require the woman to serve her
husband's father or his son. He is not permitted to instruct her to place
straw in front of his animal - because we are afraid that the animal will
become excited and rape her.
(c) He may however, instruct her to place straw in front of his cattle -
because cattle are more placid. Alternatively, by 'animals', the Tana means
male animals, and by 'cattle', he means female ones.
(a) According to Rav Chinena Brei de'Rav Ika, the author of 'Sh'fod',
'Shefachos' (our case) and 'Gumos' is Rav Malkiyo; of 'B'luris', 'Eifer
Makleh' and 'Gevinah', Rav Malkiya. According to Rav Papa - whatever deals
with a Mishnah or Beraisa, is Rav Malkiya, whatever is just a plain
Machlokes Amora'im, is Rav Malkiyo (The Si'man to remember this is that both
Mishnah and Beraisa end with an 'Alef', just like Malkiya).
(b) The difference between them is 'Shefachos', which is a Mishnah.
Consequently, according to Rav Papa, it would be Rav *Malkiya* who said it
(and not Rav *Malkiyo*, as Rav Chinena Brei de'Rav Ika maintains) - see also
Tosfos DH 'Ika Beinaihu'.
(c) Despite the fact that both Rebbi Eliezer and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel
agree that a woman is never exempt from work, the difference whether this is
because it leads to adultery or to senility will be - a woman who plays with
little dogs or dabbles in magic (the Aruch), both of which will prevent
senility, but not immorality (Rashi translates 'Nadreshir' as chess, but it
is unclear how that leads to immorality).
(a) If a man makes a Neder forbidding Tashmish with his wife, Beis Shamai
allow a maximum of two weeks. Beis Hillel say - one.
(b) The Pasuk "ve'Onasah Lo Yigra" does not apply here - because he forbade
*himself* from having Hana'ah *from his wife*, and not vice-versa.
(c) Someone who made a Neder for a longer period than that - is obligated to
divorce his wife (should she demand it) and to pay her Kesuvah.
(d) Talmidim are permitted to leave home to study Torah without express
permission from their wives for thirty days. The maximum time period allowed
to workers - is one week.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer gives the Shiur Onah for all the different groups of
people. Onah - is a man's obligation to be intimate with his wife on regular
occasions, depending on his occupation, as we shall now see.
(b) The Onah of Tayalim (which will be explained later in the Sugya) is
every day, workers, twice weekly and ass-drivers, once a week. The Onah of
1. ... camel-drivers - is once every thirty days.
2. ... sailors - once every six months.
(a) Beis Shamai in our Mishnah learn two weeks (by Neder) from a woman who
gives birth to a girl (and who is Tamei for two weeks). We reject the
original contention, that Beis Hillel's source for one week is a woman who
gave birth to a boy - because then he should have agreed with Beis Shamai's
two-week time-period (seeing as it is normal for a man to wait that amount
(b) So we conclude that Beis Hillel's source is a Nidah (who is forbidden to
her husband for one week).
1. Beis Hillel prefer to learn the Din of Neder from a Nidah rather than
from a woman who gave birth to a girl - because both Neder (the result of a
man being angry with his wife) and Nidah are relatively common, whereas the
birth of a girl is not.
(c) According to Rav, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue when the man
specifically mentioned the respective time period of each opinion, but not
if he made the Neder S'tam - since the Neder has no time limit, and is
comparable to a Neder that the husband specifically made forever, in which
case, she may demand a divorce immediately.
2. Beis Shamai prefer to learn the Din of Neder from a woman who gave birth
to a girl rather than from a Nidah - because both Neder and the birth of a
girl result from *his* actions, whereas Nidah comes entirely from *her*.
(d) Shmuel disagrees with Rav - on the grounds that it is possible for the
husband to nullify his Neder, in which case it is not comparable to a Neder
that he specifically made forever.
(a) The Mishnah in ha'Madir says - that if a man makes a Neder forbidding
his wife from having Hana'ah from him, up to thirty days, he feeds her
through a Sh'liach; more than thirty days, he must divorce her and pay her
(b) Rav and Shmuel are involved in the same Machlokes there (regarding
S'tam) as they are here, and for the same reasons, apparently duplicating
their views here. We might have thought however, that, had Rav said by S'tam
that he must send his wife away and pay her Kesuvah in our case - that is
because there is no way that he can pay his wife her dues (regarding
Tashmish) via a Sh'liach, whereas in ha'Madir, where this is possible,
perhaps even Rav will agree with Shmuel that even by S'tam, he should wait