ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kesuvos 8
KESUVOS 6-9 - have been anonymously dedicated by a unique Ohev Torah and
Marbitz Torah living in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
(a) In the third B'rachah - 'Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo' refers to
the creation of Adam, and 've'Hiskin Lo Mimenu Binyan Adei Ad', to the
creation of Chavah.
(b) In the order of the Sheva B'rachos, the B'rachah of ...
1. ... 'Sos Tasis' - is to remember Yerushalayim (as the Pasuk says in
Tehilim "im Lo E'eleh es Yerushalayim al Rosh Simchasi".
(c) The first two B'rachos are not really an intrinsic part of the Sheva
B'rachos. The significance of ...
2. ... 'Samei'ach Tesamach' - is a B'rachah for the Chasan and Kalah,
wishing them every success in their forthcoming lives together
3. ... 'Asher Bara' - is a B'rachah for the whole of Yisrael.
1. ... the first B'rachah 'she'ha'Kol Bara li'Ch'vodo' - is in honor of all
the people who gathered together to perform Chesed with the Chasan and
Kalah, just like Hashem did in Gan Eden, when he acted as Adam's groomsman.
It is not said as soon as the people gather, because it is better to recite
it over a cup of wine together with the other B'rachos (like we do with the
B'rachah over the Besamim and the Ner when we recite Havdalah).
(d) Despite the fact that this B'rachah does not really belong there, it is
added - because, seeing as we are about to discuss the creation of Chavah
from Adam, it makes sense to insert a B'rachah that deals with the creation
of Adam, who was part of the main creation.
2. ... the second B'rachah ('Yotzer ha'Adam') - to commemorate the creation
(a) The third B'rachah ('Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo ... ' begins and
end with a B'rachah - since it is the beginning of the intrinsic group of
Sheva B'rachos; but not the two subsequent B'rachos 'Sos Tasis' and
'Samei'ach Tesamach', seeing as they are 'B'rochos ha'S'muchos
The B'rachah 'Samei'ach Tesamach' ends with the words 'Mesamei'ach Chasan
*ve*'Chalah', whereas 'Asher Bara' ends 'Mesamei'ach Chasan *im* ha'Kalah' -
because the former refers, not to the marriage, but to general success in
all their endeavors, whereas the latter refers to success in their marital
(b) The sixth B'rachah 'Asher Bara' begins and ends with a B'rachah - since
it is sometimes said on its own (i.e. when there is no Panim Chadashos).
(c) Birchas Chasanim is referred to as 'Sheva B'rachos', despite the fact
that the Gemara only discusses six - because they are made over a cup of
wine, whose B'rachah constitutes the seventh one.
(a) Rav Asi recited *six* B'rachos (excluding 'Borei P'ri ha'Gafen') at the
wedding of Mar Brei de'Rav Ashi. At the wedding of Rebbi Shimon Brei
de'Rebbi, Levi recited only *five* - omitting that of 'Yotzer ha'Adam'.
(b) There are two opinions as to whether Adam and Chavah were created
together ('Chada Yetzirah Hava'i') or separately ('Sh'tei Yetziros Hava'i').
The meaning of ...
1. ... 'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i' is - that Hashem incorporated Chavah into the
creation of Adam, by creating Adam with two sides (one side Adam, the other
(c) Initially, we link Levi, who omitted 'Yotzer ha'Adam - with those who
say that 'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i'.
2. ... 'Sh'tei Yetziros Hava'i' is - that He created Adam with a tail, and
it was from there that He created Chavah.
(d) We initially link Rav Asi with those who maintain 'Sh'tei Yetziros
Hava'i'. We ultimately explain his opinion even according to those who hold
'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i' however - because Hashem initially had in mind to
create them separately (since they are intrinsically very different), before
finally creating them together (in order that they should be a better match,
for the sake of peace).
(a) One recites ...
1. ... the B'rachah of 'Asher Bara' - for seven days.
(b) But one continues saying 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' even after thirty
days - provided the guests were specifically invited in honor of the
2. ... 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' (during Mezuman of Birchas ha'Mazon) under
any circumstances - until thirty days.
(c) One begins saying 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' - from the moment that one
first soaks the barley in a dish of water, in order to make the beer for the
wedding (setting in motion the wedding preparations). Others explain that it
is from the time that one plants barley in a pot as a Siman Tov that they
should have many children.
(d) Nevertheless ...
1. ... Rav Papa said it already from the Eirusin of his son Aba Mar -
because all the wedding preparations were already completed at that stage.
2. ... Ravina began saying it from the time that he betrothed his son to
the daughter of Rav Chaviva - because he was certain that Rav Chaviva would
not retract. Unfortunately, his optimism was not justified, because Rav
Chaviva broke off the engagement.
(a) When reciting the Sheva B'rachos - Rav Tachlifa bar Ma'arva used to add
to the text of the short B'rachos, turning them all into long ones. But we
do not agree with him.
(b) Nor is the Halachah like Rav Chaviva, who used to insert 'she'ha'Simchah
bi'Me'ono' in Birchas ha'Mazon by a B'ris Milah - because how can we talk
about Simchah, when the baby is in pain?
(c) According to Rav Nachman Amar Rav, a Chasan can be included in the
Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas by Birchas Aveilim, an Aveil cannot.
The Beraisa says - that both Chasanim and Aveilim are included in their
(d) We reconcile Rav with the Beraisa - by recalling that Rav is considered
a Tana, and has the power to argue with Tana'im.
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan made the same statement as Rav (that
a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas an
Aveil cannot be included in the Minyan for Birchas Aveilim). We initially
reconcile him with the Beraisa, by establishing the Beraisa by Birchas
ha'Mazon, and Rebbi Yochanan, by the Shurah (that one makes for the mourner
after the burial). We refute this answer however, on the basis of a
statement of Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan ' ... *u'Birchas* Aveilim
ba'Asarah ve'Ein Aveilim min ha'Minyan - and a Shurah does not require a
(b) So we conclude that, in his first statement - Rebbi Yochanan was
referring to Birchas Rechavah.
(c) Birchas Rechavah is - the B'rachah they used to recite when they brought
the Aveil his first meal after the burial, in the street. It concludes
'Baruch Menachem Aveilim'.
(d) Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Yochanan also said in the same connection, that
Birchas Aveilim applies all seven days. Even though Birchas Rechavah is
normally confined to the first day, it will nevertheless extend even beyond
that - when there are Panim Chadashos (new faces) present.
(a) A child of Rav Chiya bar Aba - the Rebbe who taught Resh Lakish's
children Chumash or Mishnah, died.
(b) We bring a proof from here - that one recites Birchas Rechavah again
when there are Panim Chadashos (because Resh Lakish only went to visit Rav
Chiya bar Aba on the second day, yet he recited Birchas Rechavah).
(c) Resh Lakish ordered Yehudah bar Nachmeini (his translator) to stand
(presumably in order to interpret his words to those present) before he
began his series of Nichumim.
(d) Although he came to console Rav Chiya bar Aba, Resh Lakish nevertheless
spoke harshly of him - because he was conveying the message that he was fit
to atone for the entire world through his own death or that of his children
(like Chazal have said about great Tzadikim).
(a) Some say that Rav Chiya bar Aba's child died very young, and Resh Lakish
quoted an appropriate Pasuk from Devarim, regarding the sins of the fathers
causing their children to die. According to others, he was a Bachur, and
Resh Lakish quoted a Pasuk in Yeshayah, which deals among other things, with
immoral speech. When the Navi added "ve'Od Yado Netuyah" - he was referring
to someone who merely expresses why a Kalah goes under the Chupah (even
though everyone knows why). Even a Divine lease of seventy years will be
torn-up for such speech.
(b) Resh Lakish then recited a series of B'rachos. He concluded ...
1. ... the first B'rachah, which concerned the greatness of Hashem -
(c) The fourth B'rachah concluded 'Baruch ... Otzer ha'Mageifah'. It
concerned - the whole of K'lal Yisrael.
2. ... the second B'rachah ('Birchas Rechavah') which concerned the
mourners - 'Menachem Aveilim'.
3. ... the third B'rachah, which concerned the Menachamim (the comforters) -
(d) Resh Lakish mentioned the covenant of Avraham Avinu in the third
B'rachah - because he was the great performer of Chesed (and the essence of
this B'rachah is kindness performed by the Menachamim on behalf of the
(a) When Yisrael said "ki'S'dom Hayinu, ka'Amora Daminu" - Hashem replied -
"Shim'u D'var Hashem K'tzinei S'dom ... Am Amora".
(b) Resh Lakish learns from this Pasuk - that one should not speak
detrimentally about oneself, because one's pronouncements are likely to come
true ('le'Olam Al Yiftach Adam Piv le'Satan').
(c) Based on this D'rashah, Abaye objected to Resh Lakish's wording in the
second of his B'rachos, when he comforted Rav Chiya bar Aba - when he said
'Rabim Shasu, *Rabim Yishtu*; ke'Mishteh Rishonim *Kach Mishteh Acharonim*".
(a) Chazal instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Aveil - on the
basis of the Pasuk in Mishlei "T'nu Sheichar le'Oveid, ve'Yayin le'Marei
(b) The purpose of the three cups ...
1. ... before the meal - was to stimulate the appetite.
(c) They drank the last four cups - during Birchas ha'Mazon, one after each
2. ... after the meal - to wash down the food.
(d) According to the ha'Gahos ha'Gra, these four cups may well have
corresponded to the four B'rachos (in honor of Hashem, of the Aveil, of the
Menachamim and of all Yisrael - see also Agados Maharsha).
(a) They later instituted another four cups; two of them corresponded to the
Chazanei ha'Ir and the Parnesei ha'Ir. The significance here, of the ...
1. ... Chazanei ha'Ir is - that, in their capacity as high-ranking town
officials, they were, among their manifold duties, in charge of looking
after the town's dead.
(b) The third cup served as a consolation for the destroyed Beis Hamikdash,
and the fourth, corresponded to Raban Gamliel - who set a precedent ordering
that, when he died, they should bury him in cheap linen shrouds. Prior to
that, people were being buried in expensive ones, causing those who could
not afford it to run away in embarrassment, leaving their dead unburied.
2. ... Parnesei ha'Ir is - that being wealthy, they would pay for the burial
of the town's poor.
(c) According to Rav Papa, the Minhag goes even further than Raban Gamliel's
Takanah - because people took to being buried in cheap canvas shrouds, worth
no more than a Zuz.
(d) They revoked the Takanah of the four final cups to be drunk after
Birchas ha'Mazon in a Beis Aveil - because people were beginning to get