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Kesuvos 8

KESUVOS 6-9 - have been anonymously dedicated by a unique Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah living in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.



(a) In the third B'rachah - 'Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo' refers to the creation of Adam, and 've'Hiskin Lo Mimenu Binyan Adei Ad', to the creation of Chavah.

(b) In the order of the Sheva B'rachos, the B'rachah of ...

1. ... 'Sos Tasis' - is to remember Yerushalayim (as the Pasuk says in Tehilim "im Lo E'eleh es Yerushalayim al Rosh Simchasi".
2. ... 'Samei'ach Tesamach' - is a B'rachah for the Chasan and Kalah, wishing them every success in their forthcoming lives together
3. ... 'Asher Bara' - is a B'rachah for the whole of Yisrael.
(c) The first two B'rachos are not really an intrinsic part of the Sheva B'rachos. The significance of ...
1. ... the first B'rachah 'she'ha'Kol Bara li'Ch'vodo' - is in honor of all the people who gathered together to perform Chesed with the Chasan and Kalah, just like Hashem did in Gan Eden, when he acted as Adam's groomsman. It is not said as soon as the people gather, because it is better to recite it over a cup of wine together with the other B'rachos (like we do with the B'rachah over the Besamim and the Ner when we recite Havdalah).
2. ... the second B'rachah ('Yotzer ha'Adam') - to commemorate the creation of Adam.
(d) Despite the fact that this B'rachah does not really belong there, it is added - because, seeing as we are about to discuss the creation of Chavah from Adam, it makes sense to insert a B'rachah that deals with the creation of Adam, who was part of the main creation.
(a) The third B'rachah ('Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo ... ' begins and end with a B'rachah - since it is the beginning of the intrinsic group of Sheva B'rachos; but not the two subsequent B'rachos 'Sos Tasis' and 'Samei'ach Tesamach', seeing as they are 'B'rochos ha'S'muchos la'Chavertan'.

(b) The sixth B'rachah 'Asher Bara' begins and ends with a B'rachah - since it is sometimes said on its own (i.e. when there is no Panim Chadashos).

(c) Birchas Chasanim is referred to as 'Sheva B'rachos', despite the fact that the Gemara only discusses six - because they are made over a cup of wine, whose B'rachah constitutes the seventh one.

3) The B'rachah 'Samei'ach Tesamach' ends with the words 'Mesamei'ach Chasan *ve*'Chalah', whereas 'Asher Bara' ends 'Mesamei'ach Chasan *im* ha'Kalah' - because the former refers, not to the marriage, but to general success in all their endeavors, whereas the latter refers to success in their marital relations.


(a) Rav Asi recited *six* B'rachos (excluding 'Borei P'ri ha'Gafen') at the wedding of Mar Brei de'Rav Ashi. At the wedding of Rebbi Shimon Brei de'Rebbi, Levi recited only *five* - omitting that of 'Yotzer ha'Adam'.

(b) There are two opinions as to whether Adam and Chavah were created together ('Chada Yetzirah Hava'i') or separately ('Sh'tei Yetziros Hava'i'). The meaning of ...

1. ... 'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i' is - that Hashem incorporated Chavah into the creation of Adam, by creating Adam with two sides (one side Adam, the other side Chavah).
2. ... 'Sh'tei Yetziros Hava'i' is - that He created Adam with a tail, and it was from there that He created Chavah.
(c) Initially, we link Levi, who omitted 'Yotzer ha'Adam - with those who say that 'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i'.

(d) We initially link Rav Asi with those who maintain 'Sh'tei Yetziros Hava'i'. We ultimately explain his opinion even according to those who hold 'Chada Yetzirah Hava'i' however - because Hashem initially had in mind to create them separately (since they are intrinsically very different), before finally creating them together (in order that they should be a better match, for the sake of peace).

(a) One recites ...
1. ... the B'rachah of 'Asher Bara' - for seven days.
2. ... 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' (during Mezuman of Birchas ha'Mazon) under any circumstances - until thirty days.
(b) But one continues saying 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' even after thirty days - provided the guests were specifically invited in honor of the couple's marriage.

(c) One begins saying 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' - from the moment that one first soaks the barley in a dish of water, in order to make the beer for the wedding (setting in motion the wedding preparations). Others explain that it is from the time that one plants barley in a pot as a Siman Tov that they should have many children.

(d) Nevertheless ...

1. ... Rav Papa said it already from the Eirusin of his son Aba Mar - because all the wedding preparations were already completed at that stage.
2. ... Ravina began saying it from the time that he betrothed his son to the daughter of Rav Chaviva - because he was certain that Rav Chaviva would not retract. Unfortunately, his optimism was not justified, because Rav Chaviva broke off the engagement.
(a) When reciting the Sheva B'rachos - Rav Tachlifa bar Ma'arva used to add to the text of the short B'rachos, turning them all into long ones. But we do not agree with him.

(b) Nor is the Halachah like Rav Chaviva, who used to insert 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' in Birchas ha'Mazon by a B'ris Milah - because how can we talk about Simchah, when the baby is in pain?

(c) According to Rav Nachman Amar Rav, a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas by Birchas Aveilim, an Aveil cannot. The Beraisa says - that both Chasanim and Aveilim are included in their respective Minyanim?

(d) We reconcile Rav with the Beraisa - by recalling that Rav is considered a Tana, and has the power to argue with Tana'im.




(a) Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan made the same statement as Rav (that a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas an Aveil cannot be included in the Minyan for Birchas Aveilim). We initially reconcile him with the Beraisa, by establishing the Beraisa by Birchas ha'Mazon, and Rebbi Yochanan, by the Shurah (that one makes for the mourner after the burial). We refute this answer however, on the basis of a statement of Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan ' ... *u'Birchas* Aveilim ba'Asarah ve'Ein Aveilim min ha'Minyan - and a Shurah does not require a B'rachah.

(b) So we conclude that, in his first statement - Rebbi Yochanan was referring to Birchas Rechavah.

(c) Birchas Rechavah is - the B'rachah they used to recite when they brought the Aveil his first meal after the burial, in the street. It concludes 'Baruch Menachem Aveilim'.

(d) Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Yochanan also said in the same connection, that Birchas Aveilim applies all seven days. Even though Birchas Rechavah is normally confined to the first day, it will nevertheless extend even beyond that - when there are Panim Chadashos (new faces) present.

(a) A child of Rav Chiya bar Aba - the Rebbe who taught Resh Lakish's children Chumash or Mishnah, died.

(b) We bring a proof from here - that one recites Birchas Rechavah again when there are Panim Chadashos (because Resh Lakish only went to visit Rav Chiya bar Aba on the second day, yet he recited Birchas Rechavah).

(c) Resh Lakish ordered Yehudah bar Nachmeini (his translator) to stand (presumably in order to interpret his words to those present) before he began his series of Nichumim.

(d) Although he came to console Rav Chiya bar Aba, Resh Lakish nevertheless spoke harshly of him - because he was conveying the message that he was fit to atone for the entire world through his own death or that of his children (like Chazal have said about great Tzadikim).

(a) Some say that Rav Chiya bar Aba's child died very young, and Resh Lakish quoted an appropriate Pasuk from Devarim, regarding the sins of the fathers causing their children to die. According to others, he was a Bachur, and Resh Lakish quoted a Pasuk in Yeshayah, which deals among other things, with immoral speech. When the Navi added "ve'Od Yado Netuyah" - he was referring to someone who merely expresses why a Kalah goes under the Chupah (even though everyone knows why). Even a Divine lease of seventy years will be torn-up for such speech.

(b) Resh Lakish then recited a series of B'rachos. He concluded ...

1. ... the first B'rachah, which concerned the greatness of Hashem - 'Mechayeh ha'Meisim'.
2. ... the second B'rachah ('Birchas Rechavah') which concerned the mourners - 'Menachem Aveilim'.
3. ... the third B'rachah, which concerned the Menachamim (the comforters) - 'Meshalem ha'G'mul'.
(c) The fourth B'rachah concluded 'Baruch ... Otzer ha'Mageifah'. It concerned - the whole of K'lal Yisrael.

(d) Resh Lakish mentioned the covenant of Avraham Avinu in the third B'rachah - because he was the great performer of Chesed (and the essence of this B'rachah is kindness performed by the Menachamim on behalf of the Aveilim).

(a) When Yisrael said "ki'S'dom Hayinu, ka'Amora Daminu" - Hashem replied - "Shim'u D'var Hashem K'tzinei S'dom ... Am Amora".

(b) Resh Lakish learns from this Pasuk - that one should not speak detrimentally about oneself, because one's pronouncements are likely to come true ('le'Olam Al Yiftach Adam Piv le'Satan').

(c) Based on this D'rashah, Abaye objected to Resh Lakish's wording in the second of his B'rachos, when he comforted Rav Chiya bar Aba - when he said 'Rabim Shasu, *Rabim Yishtu*; ke'Mishteh Rishonim *Kach Mishteh Acharonim*".

(a) Chazal instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Aveil - on the basis of the Pasuk in Mishlei "T'nu Sheichar le'Oveid, ve'Yayin le'Marei Nefesh".

(b) The purpose of the three cups ...

1. ... before the meal - was to stimulate the appetite.
2. ... after the meal - to wash down the food.
(c) They drank the last four cups - during Birchas ha'Mazon, one after each B'rachah.

(d) According to the ha'Gahos ha'Gra, these four cups may well have corresponded to the four B'rachos (in honor of Hashem, of the Aveil, of the Menachamim and of all Yisrael - see also Agados Maharsha).

(a) They later instituted another four cups; two of them corresponded to the Chazanei ha'Ir and the Parnesei ha'Ir. The significance here, of the ...
1. ... Chazanei ha'Ir is - that, in their capacity as high-ranking town officials, they were, among their manifold duties, in charge of looking after the town's dead.
2. ... Parnesei ha'Ir is - that being wealthy, they would pay for the burial of the town's poor.
(b) The third cup served as a consolation for the destroyed Beis Hamikdash, and the fourth, corresponded to Raban Gamliel - who set a precedent ordering that, when he died, they should bury him in cheap linen shrouds. Prior to that, people were being buried in expensive ones, causing those who could not afford it to run away in embarrassment, leaving their dead unburied.

(c) According to Rav Papa, the Minhag goes even further than Raban Gamliel's Takanah - because people took to being buried in cheap canvas shrouds, worth no more than a Zuz.

(d) They revoked the Takanah of the four final cups to be drunk after Birchas ha'Mazon in a Beis Aveil - because people were beginning to get drunk.

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