ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Kesuvos 5
(a) Rebbi Zeira initially explains that the Tana forbids Bi'ah (marriage) on
Motza'ei Shabbos because of Cheshbonos -meaning that he might make an
inventory of things that he needs for the wedding feast, which is forbidden
because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Daber Davar" (even if he does not write
(b) The problem with Rebbi Zeira's explanation is - that Cheshbonos shel
Mitzvah are permitted on Shabbos.
(c) Mitzvah calculations; undertaking to give Tzedakah; looking into
communal needs; Piku'ach Nefesh all have in common - that they fall under
the category of Cheshbonos shel Mitzvah.
(d) And for the same reason, one is also permitted on Shabbos ...
1. ... to arrange a Shiduch for one's son or daughter.
2. ... to employ a Rebbe to teach one's son Torah.
3. ... to employ a tutor to teach him a trade.
(a) Rebbi Zeira's real reason for the prohibition of marrying on Motza'ei
Shabbos is - because we are afraid that he might take a bird for the feast
and Shecht it on Shabbos.
(b) Nevertheless, we are not afraid that, when *Yom Kipur* falls on Monday,
someone may Shecht a bird on Shabbos for Erev Yom Kipur. If we had been -
Chazal would have postponed it until Tuesday.
(c) One reason for this distinction is because, whereas for a wedding, one
needs to prepare a feast for all the guests, on Yom Kipur, people are only
preparing for their own immediate family. Alternatively - when Erev Yom
Kipur falls on Sunday, one has the whole night to Shecht, wherea in the case
with a wedding that is due to take place on Motza'ei Shabbos, one is hard up
(d) Originally, we gave the reason for the prohibition of marrying
(performing Bi'ah) on Friday night, as making a wound. Now, we change it to
the same reason as the prohibition of marrying (performing Bi'ah) on Friday
night - because we are afraid that, finding himself short of meat for the
feast, he might take a bird and Shecht it after Shabbos has already entered.
(a) We learned in our Mishnah that a Besulah goes under the Chupah on
Wednesday. The B'nei Yeshivah asked whether they were permitted to
consummate the marriage straightway, or whether they had to wait until after
nightfall. They might be obligated to wait - because of the fear that, if
time (however short) is permitted to elapse between the Chasan's discovery
that the Kalah is not a Besulah and the time that Beis-Din convene, his
anger will cool down and he will forgive her. If, on the other hand, he
delays the Bi'ah until nightfall, he will strike whilst the iron is hot.
(b) We resolve the She'eilah from Bar Kapara in a Beraisa, who says that ...
1. ... a Besulah who marries on Wednesday - consummates the marriage on
Thursday, because of the B'rachah that Hashem bestowed upon the fish on that
(c) Clearly then, a Besulah who married on Wednesday, would consummate the
marriage on Thursday only because of B'rachah (which is a good idea, but not
obligatory. From which we can infer that, if they did care about the
B'rachah, they were permitted to consummate it on Wednesday (because Chazal
were not concerned that his anger might cool down in such a short time).
2. ... an Almanah who marries on Thursday - consummates it on Friday,
because of the B'rachah that Hashem bestowed upon Adam on that day.
(a) One of the reasons that an Almanah performs Bi'ah on Thursday (in spite
of the B'rachah of the fish) is because the B'rachah that was given to Adam
is more worthwhile. The other reason is - because of a Takanas Chachamim
('Shakdu') protecting an Almanah, to ensure that the man does not just
consummate the marriage on Thursday, and then go off to work on Friday. So
they initiated the marriage on Thursday and the Bi'ah on Friday, followed by
Shabbos, where he cannot go to work anyway (leaving three days of
(b) One of the differences between the two reasons is manifest in the case
of a man who is out of work (to whom 'Shakdu' is not applicable). The
other difference is - when Yom-Tov falls on Friday, and he cannot go to work
anyway (in both cases, they will be permitted to consummate the marriage
already on Thursday, should the reason for the prohibition be because of
(a) bar Kapara extrapolates from the two Pesukim "af Yadi Yasdah Eretz,
vi'Yemini Tafchah Shamayim" and "Mikdash, Hashem Konenu Yadecha" - that the
work of Tzadikim who built the Beis-Hamikdash) is greater than that of
Hashem (seeing as the reference to Hand in the first Pasuk is in the
singular, and in the second Pasuk, in the plural). See Agados Maharsha.
(b) bar Kapara explains that the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Yabeshes *Yadav* Yatzaru" - is written without a 'Yud'.
(c) He explains that the Pasuk there "u'Ma'aseh *Yadav* Magid ha'Raki'a" (in
the plural) - refers to the Tefilos of the Tzadikim. And "Magid ha'Raki'a" -
refers to the rain that the heaven sends down, demonstrating their
2. ... "Yadav *Yatzaru*" (in the plural) - refers to the fingers of Hashem's
Hand (like the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "Ki Er'eh Shamecha Ma'aseh
(d) The name of the Bavli who asked bar Kapara these Kashyos - was none
other than Rebbi Chiya.
(a) bar Kapara explains the Pasuk "ve'Yaseid Tihyeh Lecha al Azeinecha" - by
changing the vowels of "Azeinecha" to read "Oznecha", to teach us that when
someone hears something that he should not, he should place his fingers (the
peg to which the Pasuk refers) in his ears.
(b) That is also how Rebbi Elazar explained the pointy shape of the fingers.
When he asked why the fingers are like pegs, he cannot have meant to ask why
they are separated into five individual entities and are not joined together
(like those of most animals) - because we already know that each finger has
a specific purpose (from the fact that each one has a different name - as we
shall now see).
(c) The five fingers are called Zeres, K'mitzah, Amah, Etzba and Godel. The
Zeres - was used to measure the size of the Choshen (which was one Zeres by
one Zeres), and the K'mitzah, to contain the Kometz of a Korban Minchah.
(d) The Amah was to measure the Amos of the various building projects of the
Beis Hamikdash and of the holy vessels, and the Etzba for sprinkling the
blood of the Chatas. Hashem created the Godel in order to place on it the
blood and the oil during the seven days of Milu'im, on the right Godel of
the Kohen Gadol , and also on the right Godel of the Metzora during his
(a) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael explained that, of the entire ear, only the
lobe is soft - so that, when a person hears something that he should not, he
can press the lobe into the ear.
(b) One should be careful not to listen to idle chatter - because, the
softest of the limbs, the (lobes of the) ear will be the first to be
affected by the fires of Gehinom.
(a) The B'nei Yeshivah asked whether it is permitted to make the first Bi'ah
with a Besulah on Shabbos. Perhaps they were aware of the Beraisa above
which forbade it, or perhaps they were not certain whether it is Halachah
(See also Tosfos DH 'Mahu').
(b) In the first Lashon of the She'eilah, if the blood of Besulim is
considered intrinsically joined to the body, then the first Bi'ah is
certainly forbidden, because extracting it will entail causing a wound. Even
if we assume the blood to be merely deposited in the body however, it might
be forbidden - if it is the opening he wants (because creating an opening is
a form of building), even according to Rebbi Shimon (who holds 'Davar
she'Ein Miskaven, Mutar'.
(c) But it might still be forbidden, even if he really only intends to
extract the blood - assuming the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah (who holds
'Davar she'Ein Miskaven, Asur').
(d) According to Rebbi Shimon, we take for granted that, if it is the blood
he wants, it will be permitted. It is not a case of 'P'sik Reisha'
([inevitable] which even Rebbi Shimon concedes, is forbidden) - because, as
will be explained later, it is possible to avoid both extracting blood and
making an opening).
(a) The first Bi'ah with a Besulah will be permitted even according to Rebbi
Yehudah - if we consider it 'Mekalkel' (even though Mekalkel is normally
Asur mi'de'Rabbanan - see Tosfos DH 'Im Timtzi Lomar').
(b) The Bi'ah of a Besulah would be considered Mekalkel - because a Be'ulah
is worth less than a Besulah (evident from the fact that the Kesubah of a
Besulah is two hundred Zuz, whereas that of a Be'ulah is only one hundred).
(c) There is no shadow of doubt that if it is Mekalkel, the Bi'ah will be
permitted - because even Rebbi Shimon, who is strict by Mekalkel, is only
strict by Mekalkel ba'Chaburah (and we are currently holding 'Dam Mifkad
Pakid', and there is no wound).
(a) In the second Lashon, we assume that the blood of a Besulah is
intrinsically joined. The Bi'ah might nevertheless be permitted - because it
is not even the blood that he wants, but his own pleasure, assuming the
Halachah to be like Rebbi Shimon (Davar she'Ein Miskaven, Mutar).
(b) The Bi'ah would be forbidden according to Rebbi Shimon and permitted
according to Rebbi Yehudah - if it is considered Mekalkel ba'Chaburah, where
Rebbi Yehudah holds Patur and Rebbi Shimon, Chayav.
(c) In Bei Rav they cited Rav as permitting the first Bi'ah, and Shmuel as
forbidding it - in Neherda'a (Shmuel's town), they reversed the opinions.
(d) The Si'man that Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak gave to remember who said what
is - that each one strove to be lenient for himself (i.e. in de'Bei Rav
quoted Rav as being the lenient one, and in Neherda'a ) Shmuel's territory,
they cited Shmuel).