POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Kesuvos 68
KESUVOS 68 (3 Sivan) - dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Rabbi Bennett Gold (Rav
Dov ben Dovid Meir), by Shari and Jay Gold and family, on his Yahrzeit.
10) WHO IS ENTITLED TO RECEIVE TZEDAKAH
(a) R. Chanina: He is a swindler!
11) THE DOWRY OF AN ORPHAN
1. (R. Elazar): We should thank the swindlers - if not
for them, we would be sinning each day - "He (a poor
person to whom you did not give) will call about you
to Hash-m, and you will bear sin".
(b) (R. Chiya Bar Rav mi'Difti): Anyone who hides his eyes
from Tzedakah is as one that does idolatry.
1. It says (by one who will not give Tzedakah), "Lest
there be a Bli'al (base) thought in your heart" -
and it also says by idolatry, "Bli'al".
(c) (Beraisa): One who makes his eye appear blind, or his
stomach swollen, or his thigh shriveled will experience
this before he dies!
(d) One who takes Tzedakah and does not need it, will come to
need it before he dies.
(e) (Mishnah): We do not force him to sell his house or the
vessels he uses.
(f) Question: But a Beraisa teaches, 'If he used gold
vessels, he will use silver; if he used silver vessels,
he will use copper'!
(g) Answer #1 (Rav Zvid): Regarding a bed and table of gold
or silver, he must sell it; regarding cups and bowls, he
may keep them.
1. Objection: Why is he not forced to use cheaper cups
and bowls - because they repulse him - the same is
thus by a bed and table!
(h) Answer #2 (Rava Brei d'Rabah): A silver back-scratcher
must be sold.
(i) Answer #3 (Rav Papa): When he wishes to collect gifts for
the poor, he may keep his vessels; when a man improperly
took such gifts and we demand repayment, he must sell his
(a) (Mishnah): An orphan girl married off willingly by her
mother or brothers, and they wrote her a dowry of 50 or
100 Zuz - when she gets older, she may force them to give
her what was fitting;
(b) R. Yehudah says, if the father married off 1 daughter, we
give to the 2nd as he gave to the 1st;
(c) Chachamim say, sometimes a person is poor and becomes
wealthy, or vice-versa; rather, we estimate the value of
the possessions and give to her.
(d) (Gemara - Shmuel): For Parnasah (a dowry a girl takes
from the estate of her deceased father), we estimate
according to the father.
(e) Question (Beraisa): Daughters receive food and Parnasah
from the property of their father.
1. We do not say, if the father was alive, he would
give so much - rather, we appraise the property, and
(f) (Mishnah): Chachamim say, sometimes a person is poor and
becomes wealthy, or vice-versa; rather, we estimate the
value of the possessions and give to her.
2. Suggestion: Parnasah is the dowry she receives when
3. Rejection (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): No, it means
supporting her basic needs.
4. Suggestion: But it says, they receive food and
Parnasah - is not one her own basic needs, and the
other, the needs of marriage?!
5. Answer: No, both refer to her own needs - 'She is
fed' refers to food and drink, 'Misparneses' refers
to clothing and coverings.
1. Question: What is meant by 'poor' and 'wealthy'?
(g) (Defense): Shmuel is not refuted - he holds as R.
i. Suggestion: If it means poor or wealthy in
property - would the 1st Tana say, if the
father grew poor, we give the 2nd daughter as
the 1st - the father lacks the property!
2. Answer: Rather, it means stingy or generous - and
the Mishnah says, we estimate the property and give
i. We see, we do not estimate the father's
intention - this refutes Shmuel!
1. R. Yehudah says, if the father married off 1
daughter, we give to the 2nd as he gave to the 1st.
(h) Question: If so, Shmuel should have said, the law is as
(i) Answer: Had he said that, one would think that this only
applies when the father married off a daughter in his
life, that he revealed his opinion, how much he wants to
give to his daughters; but if he never married off a
1. Rather, we see that R. Yehudah goes after estimation
- whether or not he married off any daughters.
(j) Rava (to Rav Chisda): They say in your name, the law is
as R. Yehudah.
i. The Mishnah chose the case when he married off
a daughter, to show how extreme is the opinion
of Chachamim - even though he revealed his
thinking, we do not go after estimation of his
1. Rav Chisda: It should be Hash-m's will that all such
nice teachings should be in my name!
(k) Question: Does Rava really agree that the law is as R.
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): A daughter fed by the brothers
receives 1/10th of the property (as Parnasah).
(l) Answer: Rava says that the law is as R. Yehudah when we
know the man's nature; when we know nothing about him,
the law is as Rebbi.
i. (Rava): The law is as Rebbi.
1. This is presumably correct - Rav Ada Bar Ahavah
reported that Rebbi once gave 1/12th as Parnasah -
but Rebbi said, 1/10th!
(m) (Beraisa - Rebbi): A daughter fed by the brothers
receives 1/10th of the property;
2. Rather, as we said - and Rebbi himself only said
1/10th when we do not know the man's nature.
1. They asked Rebbi: If a man leaves 10 daughters and 1
son - will you say, the daughters get all the
2. Rebbi: The 1st daughter receives 1/10; the next 1/10
of what she left over (i.e. 1/10 of 90%); the next,
1/10 of what the second left (81%) ... then, the
girls split their money equally among themselves.
12) A DIFFERECE BETWEEN PARNASAH AND FOOD
3. Question: Each daughter took for herself (she should
keep what she took)!
(n) (Beraisa - Rebbi): Whether the daughters became Bogeros
before marrying, or married before becoming Bogeros, they
stop being fed from the estate, but they do not forfeit
4. Answer: Rebbi only said they share equally when they
all come to get married at the same time.
5. This supports Rav Masneh.
i. (Rav Masneh): If they all come to get married
at the same time, they receive 1 tenth.
ii. Question: This is unreasonable!
iii. Correction: Rather they receive a tenth as one
(i.e. they share equally).
1. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, they even lose Parnasah.
What can they do? They hire husbands (i.e. they make
it financially advantageous for men to marry them),
and they receive their Parnasah.
2. (Rav Nachman): The law is as Rebbi.
3. Question (Rava - Mishnah): An orphan girl that was
married off by her mother or brothers and consented
- if they wrote her 50 or 100 Zuz, when she grows
up, she can claim the rest of what was fitting for
her to get.
i. This is because she was a minor - but an adult,
no, because she pardoned her privilege (and
presumably, the law is as our Stam Mishnah)!
4. Answer: When she protested, she does not lose her
Parnasah (even an adult); when she didn't protest,
an adult loses Parnasah.
i. Presumably, this is correct - if not, Rebbi
ii. (Beraisa - Rebbi): A daughter fed by the
brothers receives 1/10th of the property.
iii. Question: And if she is not fed, she does not
iv. Answer: Rather, if she did not protest when
they stopped feeding her and did not give
Parnasah, we say that she pardoned them; if she
protested, she did not pardon them.
(a) (Ravina to Rava): Rav Ada Bar Ahavah said in your name,
she need not protest when she turns Bogeres *or* is
married, but must protest if she turns Bogeres *and*
(b) Question: Did Rava really say this?
1. Rava asked Rav Nachman (above), and accepted his
answer, that even a Na'arah that married forfeits
Parnasah if she does not protest!
(c) Answer: When she is fed by the brothers, only a Bogeres
that gets married must protest; if she is not fed by the
brothers, even a Na'arah that gets married must protest.
(d) (Rav Huna, citing Rebbi): Parnasah is unlike privileges
of the Kesuvah (that orphan girls are fed from the
(e) Question: In what respect are they different?
1. Suggestion: Daughters may seize inherited property
that the brothers sold to collect Parnasah, but not
(f) Answer: Rather, regarding the following, Parnasah is
unlike a stipulation of the Kesuvah: one who says, 'My
daughters should not be fed from my estate' - they are
fed anyway; but if he says, 'They should not receive
Parnasah', they do not.
2. Rejection: Rav Huna does not need to teach this -
all know this law, it comes up every day!
3. Suggestion #2: Parnasah may be collected from
Metaltelim, but not food.
4. Rejection: According to Rebbi, food is also
collected from Metaltelim!
i. (Beraisa - Rebbi): Both property which may be
seized by creditors (i.e. land) and property
which may not be seized by creditors (i.e.
Metaltelim) is used to feed the widow and