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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Kesuvos 57


(a) Rami Bar Chama's sister was married to Rav Avya; she lost her Kesuvah.
1. Rav Yosef: Rav Yehudah quoted Shmuel to say, R. Meir holds that she must have a Kesuvah of 200 - but Chachamim say that a man can keep his wife for 2 or 3 years without a Kesuvah!
2. Abaye: But Rav Nachman quoted Shmuel as saying that the law is as R. Meir in his decrees!
3. Rav Yosef: If so, go write her a Kesuvah.
(a) (Rav Dimi): R. Yehoshua Ben Levi said, the Tana'im argue at the beginning - at the end, they agree that she cannot pardon the Kesuvah;
1. R. Yochanan said, they argue in both cases.
(b) (R. Avahu): R. Yochanan told me, he does not argue on R. Yehoshua Ben Levi.
1. When R. Yehoshua Ben Levi said 'the beginning' - he means the start of Chupah; 'the end' - the end of relations; R. Yochanan said they argue at the start and end of Chupah.
i. The end of Chupah is the start of relations.
(c) (Ravin): R. Yehoshua Ben Levi said, the Tana'im argue at the end - at the beginning, they agree that she can pardon the Kesuvah;
1. R. Yochanan said, they argue in both cases.
(d) (R. Avahu): R. Yochanan told me, he does not argue on R. Yehoshua Ben Levi.
1. When R. Yehoshua Ben Levi said 'the end' - he means the end of Chupah; 'the start' - the start of Chupah; R. Yochanan said they argue at the start and end of relations.
(e) (Rav Papa): Had R. Avahu not explained thusly, I would have said that R. Yochanan and R. Yehoshua Ben Levi do argue on each other, but Rav Dimi and Ravin do not argue!
1. When Ravin said the end - he means the end of Chupah; when Rav Dimi said the start - he means the start of relations.
(f) Question: What is Rav Papa teaching us?
(g) Answer: It is better to say that 2 Amora'im argue based on their own reasons, than to say that they argue on what another Amora said.
(a) (Mishnah): We give a virgin 12 months to prepare for Chupah from when the husband asks; just as we give time to her, he is given time (from when she asks); a widow is given 30 days;
(b) If the time came and they were not married - he must feed her; she may eat Terumah (if he is a Kohen); R. Tarfon says, he may give her all Terumah; R. Akiva says, half Terumah, half regular food;
(c) If her husband died, and she is waiting for Yibum, she may not eat Terumah; if she was engaged for 6 months, and waiting 6 months for Yibum, or even the full year less one day engaged or waiting for Yibum, she does not eat Terumah;
(d) This is the first version of the Mishnah. A later Beis Din decreed that she may not eat Terumah until Chupah.

(e) (Gemara) Question: What is the source of a year to prepare for Chupah?
(f) Answer (Rav Huna): "Let her stay with us Yamim (days) or 10".
1. Suggestion: If Yamim means 2 days - people do not speak thusly, to request 2, and if not, to request 10!
2. Rather, it means a year - "Yamim will be its redemption".
3. Question: Say it is a month - "Until a month of Yamim"!
4. Answer: It is better to learn plain Yamim from plain Yamim, and not from Yamim where a month is specified.
(g) (R. Zeira): A minor - she or her father may delay the Chupah.
(h) Question: If she wants to go to Chupah - why should her father object?
(i) Answer: He reasons, she does not know that she will not be happy, and he will have to marry her off again.
(j) (R. Aba Bar Levi): We do not arrange to marry a girl as a minor, but we may arrange a marriage for a minor for when she grows up.
(k) Question: This is obvious - why not?
(l) Answer: One would think, we should be concerned that she will become weak from fright - R. Aba teaches, we have no such concern.
(a) (Rav Huna): If she turned Bogeres and became engaged, we give her 30 days, as a widow.
(b) Question (Beraisa): If she became a Bogeres, it is as if the husband asked to have Chupah.
1. Suggestion: It is like a virgin being asked (and she has 12 months).
2. Rejection: No, it is as a widow being asked.
(c) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): A Bogeres that has been engaged for 12 months - since her husband must feed her, he can annul her vows.
1. This suggests that she has 12 months to prepare!
2. Rejection: The Beraisa means, a Bogeres *or* a girl that has waited 12 months ...
(d) (Beraisa): One who engages a virgin, whether he asks and she delays, or she asks and he delays, we give her 12 months from the request, not from the engagement; becoming a Bogeres is as asking.
1. If she was Bogeres for 1 day and became engaged, she gets 12 months; for an engaged girl, 30 days.
2. This refutes Rav Huna.
(e) Question: What does it mean, 'for an engaged girl, 30 days'?
(f) Answer (Rav Papa): A girl that has been a Bogeres for 12 months, if engaged, R. Shimon Ben Elazar is given 30 days, as a widow.
(a) Opinion #1 (Ula): Mid'Oraisa, a Bas Yisrael engaged to a Kohen may eat Terumah.
1. "A Kohen that will acquire a soul for money" - an engaged girl can be acquired with money!
(b) She does not eat Terumah, lest they mix a cup of Terumah wine for her, and she will give to her siblings.
(c) Question: This concern applies even after the time for Chupah comes (yet the first Mishnah permits her after such time)!
(d) Answer: When the time comes, he designates a place for her (away from her siblings).
(e) Question: If we have such a concern - we should not allow a Kohen farmhand living by a Yisrael to eat Terumah, lest they come to eat with him!
(f) Answer: They give him to eat - will they eat from him?!
(g) Opinion #2 (Rav Shmuel Bar Yehudah): An engaged girl may not eat, because she may have a blemish that would invalidate the marriage.
(h) Question: If so, even after Chupah, if they did not have relations, she should be forbidden to eat!
(i) Answer: The husband checks her (through his female relatives) before Chupah.
(j) Question: The same concern should apply to a slave bought from a Yisrael!
(k) Answer: Blemishes by a slave do not invalidate the sale.
1. If they are visible - the buyer saw them (and knowingly bought the slave)!
2. If they are on his back - the slave is only needed for labor!
3. If they are in a hidden place - the master doesn't care about them!
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