POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kesuvos 14
KESUVOS 11-14 - have been anonymously dedicated by a unique Ohev Torah and
Marbitz Torah living in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
1) AN ENGAGED GIRL THAT BECAME PREGNANT
(a) An engaged couple came before Rav Yosef. They both said
that she is pregnant from him.
2) A WIDOW THAT MAY HAVE BECOME DEFILED
(b) (Rav Yosef): There is no reason to be concerned -
firstly, the husband admits!
1. Another reason - the law is as R. Gamliel!
(c) Question (Abaye): Your words imply that the 2nd reason
stands on its own - but did R. Gamliel say his law when
the husband does not admit?
1. (Shmuel): Even though the law is as R. Gamliel, do
not rule leniently unless most people in the area do
not defile her.
(d) Counter-question: How do you (Abaye) understand - if the
law is as R. Gamliel, why not rule leniently (even
without a Kosher majority)?
2. In our case, everyone except the husband defiles
(e) Answer: You must say, the law is as R. Gamliel B'diavad;
L'chatchilah, we require a Kosher majority.
(f) Our case is also like B'diavad (if we are stringent, the
child cannot get married (even to one of improper
lineage; some explain, if we are stringent, the husband
will not want to stay married to her).
(a) Question (Abaye): Did R. Yehoshua really say that she is
(b) (Beraisa): R. Yehoshua and R. Yehudah Ben Beseira
testified of a widow of an Isah (lit. dough, i.e. a
family in which there is a mixture of doubtful lineage)
is permitted to a Kohen!
(c) Answer (Rabah): That is because a woman checks before she
gets married; here, does a woman check before having
(d) Question (Rava): Why did Abaye only ask a contradiction
in R. Yehoshua - there is also a contradiction in R.
(e) (End of the previous Beraisa): R. Gamliel: We accept your
testimony. but R. Yochanan Ben Zakai decreed not to check
such families - Kohanim will only listen to avoid such
women, but they will not marry such women, even if we say
they are permitted!
(f) Answer (Rava): We must answer, R. Gamliel is stringent
there, since the woman herself is unsure if she is
Kosher; he is lenient in our Mishnah, since the woman is
sure that she is Kosher.
(g) We will answer for R. Yehoshua, that he is lenient by the
Isah since there are 2 doubts; he is stringent in the
Mishnah, since there is only a single doubt. (Rabah's
answer cannot be used, since to explain R. Gamliel, we
must say that the widow had not checked her first
1. R. Gamliel gives great credence to a certain claim;
he is lenient, even by a single doubt; he is strict
by a doubtful claim, and is stringent even by a
(h) (Beraisa): What is a widow of an Isah? A family with no
doubtful Mamzerim (bastards), Nesinim (Givonim),or slaves
2. R. Yehoshua is strict by a single doubt, and
prohibits even when there is a certain claim; he is
lenient by a double doubt, and permits even when
there is an unsure claim.
(i) R. Meir: Any family without any of these, the women may
(j) R. Shimon Ben R. Elazar: A widow of an Isah is when a
doubtful Chalal (profaned Kohen) got mixed into a family;
Jews recognize Mamzerim among ourselves, but not the
Chalalim among ourselves.
(k) Question#1: The first Tana says that Mamzerim, Nesinim or
slaves may not be mixed in - we infer that Chalalim may
be mixed in!
1. Why is there a distinction - the prohibition of
Chalalim (for their daughters or widows to marry
Kohanim) is also a Torah law
(l) Question#2: R. Meir says the same thing as the 1st Tana!
(m) Question#3: R. Shimon Ben R. Elazar ... an Isah may have
Chalalim mixed in ... there is no need for him to later
say, we do not recognize Chalalim among ourselves!
(n) Answer (R. Yochanan): They argue in the case of a man who
protests if he is called a Mamzer, but is silent if
called a Chalal.
1. The 1st Tana says that if someone in the family is
silent to any of these accusations, a widow of the
family may not marry a Kohen.
(o) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): One who is silent if called a Mamzer
is Kosher; one who is silent if called a Chalal is a
2. R. Meir agrees, if he is called a Mamzer, Nasin or
slave; but if he is called a Chalal, his silence
just shows that he doesn't care, and the widow may
marry a Kohen.
3. R. Shimon Ben R. Elazar says that when R. Meir
declared Kosher a man who is silent, it was in
response to being called a Mamzer - since we
recognize Mamzerim, he knows that people will not
believe it, since there has been no talk about him.
i. If he protests when called a Mamzer, but is
silent if called a Chalal, we assume that he is
a Chalal - he is silent because he can still
marry into Yisrael.
(p) (Beraisa): One who is silent if called a Chalal is
Kosher; one who is silent if called a Mamzer is a Mamzer.
1. R. Yosi holds as R. Shimon Ben R. Elazar; the 2nd
Beraisa holds as the 1st version of R. Meir in the