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Kesuvos 111

KESUVOS 111 - dedicated anonymously in honor of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, and in honor of those who study the Dafyomi around the world.

1) [line 4] "HISHBATI ESCHEM BENOS YERUSHALAYIM..." - "I adjure you, O daughters of Yerushalayim, by the gazelles or by the hinds of the field, should you wake or rouse the love until it pleases." (Shir ha'Shirim 2:7, 3:5) - Note that there are two identical verses and another similar verse (ibid. 8:4) that account for the various oaths mentioned in our Gemara. A fourth verse (ibid. 5:8) is not considered, since it does not mention Ta'iru or Te'oreru, the words that hint to the oaths. (See SHITAH MEKUBETZES and MAHARSHA.)

2) [line 6] SHE'LO YA'ALU YISRAEL B'CHOMAH - that Benei Yisrael should not band together and come to Eretz Yisrael by force, like a fortifying wall

3) [line 13] SHE'LO YEGALU ES HA'KETZ - that the prophets among them should not reveal [the time of] the End [of Days] (RASHI)

4) [line 13] SHE'LO YERACHAKU ES HA'KETZ - (a) that Benei Yisrael should not delay the final redemption by sinning; (b) According to the Girsa SHE'LO *YIDCHAKU* ES HA'KETZ - that Benei Yisrael should not force the final redemption to come with their prayers (this Shevu'ah does not apply today; in fact, the opposite is true -- ARIZAL to Shir ha'Shirim 8:4)

5) [line 15] ANI MATIR ES BESARCHEM - I will permit your flesh [to be taken by anybody who wants]

6) [line 17] "U'VAL YOMAR SHACHEN CHALISI HA'AM HA'YOSHEV BAH NESU AVON." - "And the inhabitant [of Yerushalayim] shall not say, 'I am sick;' the people who dwell there shall be forgiven their iniquity." (Yeshayah 33:24) - The inhabitants of Yerushalayim shall not say that they are sick from all of their troubles because their sins will be forgiven and there will be no more troubles or sicknesses (METZUDOS ibid.)

7) [line 18] ANAN B'SOVLEI CHALA'IM MASNINAN LAH - we learn that this verse is referring to people who are suffering from illnesses

8) [line 23] KOLATETO ME'CHAYIM - (lit. when Eretz Yisrael receives him from a state of life) when he dies in Eretz Yisrael

9) [line 24] BEI CHOZA'AH - a district of Bavel on the caravan road, along the Tigris River and its canals

10) [line 24] L'MEICHAS - to go down [to Bavel]
11) [line 25] KUSIS - a Nochris, i.e. a Jewess who lives outside of Eretz Yisrael
12) [line 25] V'HU YERED ACHARAV!? - and he (i.e. you) wants to go down to Bavel after him?!

13) [line 27] MI'PUMBEDISA L'VEI KUVEI - from Pumbedisa (lit. Mouth of Bedisa, a canal of the Euphrates) to Bei Kuvei, which was six Parsa'os away. Pumbedisa was the location of a great Yeshiva in Bavel, which existed for 800 years. The scholars of Pumbedisa were known for their keen intellect (Bava Metzi'a 38b). To emphasize its importance as a Torah center, Rabah and Rav Yosef stated that just as one is prohibited from leaving Eretz Yisrael to Chutz la'Aretz, so too is one prohibited to leave Pumbedisa.

14) [line 29] L'ISTUNIYA - a place near Pumbedisa
15) [line 31] KOL HA'ARATZOS ISAH L'ERETZ YISRAEL - (a) all lands are considered as a *dough* with regard to Eretz Yisrael; just as the different ingredients of a dough are indiscernible from one another, the different families that live outside of Eretz Yisrael are indiscernible (which ones are of reputable lineage and which ones are Mamzerim) (RASHI); (b) all lands are considered *waste* in comparison with Eretz Yisrael; the Kohanim and the other inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael were careful to inspect the lineage of all of its inhabitants (RASHI to Kidushin 69b. Rashi (ibid. 71a) cites REBBI MOSHE ME'ROMAT, who claims that the word "Isah" refers to the solid grape waste that is left after the juice is squeezed out.)

16) [line 33] "HOY TZIYON! HIMALTI YOSHEVES BAS BAVEL!" - "Ho! Escape, O Tziyon, you who dwell with the daughter of Bavel." (Zecharyah 2:11) - Even while Benei Yisrael were in Bavel, they were called "Yoshevei Tziyon" (SHITAH MEKUBETZES)

17) [line 34] NAKTINAN - we have a tradition
18) [line 34] CHEVLEI D'MASHI'ACH - the "birth pangs" of (i.e. the suffering before) the coming of Mashiach

19) [line 34] HUTZAL D'VINYAMIN - a city in Bavel, located between Sura and Neharde'a, that was walled from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, where members of the tribe of Binyamin may have settled after they were taken into exile

20) [line 34] KARNA D'SHEIZVASA - the corner (nook) of refuge
21) [line 35] "...V'NASATI TZEVI B'ERETZ CHAYIM." - "[When I shall bring you down with those who descend into the pit, with the people of old, and shall set you in the lowest parts of the earth, in places desolate of old, with those who go down to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited;] but I shall bestow splendor on the land of the living;" (Yechezkel 26:20)

22) [line 35] SHE'TZIVYONI BAH - [a land] that I desire; [a land] in which I take pleasure

23) [line 36] "YICHYU MESECHA, NEVEILASI YEKUMUN..." - "Your [righteous] dead men shall live, together with my (i.e. the nation of Yisrael's) dead body shall they arise. [Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust; for your dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the shades of the dead.]" (Yeshayah 26:19)

24) [line 38] MAISINA ALAIHU - I will bring upon them
25) [line 38] MALKA D'KALIL KI TAVYA - a king that is as swift as a gazelle
26) [line 39] NEFALIM - stillborn fetuses
27) [line 43] AL YEDEI GILGUL - through the rolling of their bones until they reach Eretz Yisrael

28) [line 44] MECHILOS - tunnels
29) [line 45] DEVARIM B'GO - there are matters concealed in this
30) [line 49] GILGEL B'ATZMO AD YOM MOSO - he suffered his pain until the day of his death [and did not leave to marry her]

*31*) [line 51] V'IM EIN ATAH OLEH HIZAHER BI'SHELOSHAH DEVARIM - that is, the air of Eretz Yisrael is healthier and you need not take so much care to avoid the following illnesses, but if you remain in Chutz la'Aretz you must take care to avoid the following illnesses.

32) [line 51] TACHTONIYUS - piles


*33*) [line 2] (V'CHEN) [V'CHAN] AMRU - This Girsa is found in the SHITAH MEKUBETZES and manuscripts. (a) Rabah had apparently asked his brothers in Eretz Yisrael to determine who had ruled like Rebbi Yehudah regarding mules. The answer to his question was appended to a lengthy outburst of Agadah meant to persuade Rabah to move to Eretz Yisrael and join his brothers -- SHITAH MEKUBETZES; (b) This was part of the attempt to persuade Rabah to move to Eretz Yisrael. His brothers pointed out that he can only receive Semichah if he comes to Eretz Yisrael (Sanhedrin 5a). They then continued, "If you think that it will not help you receive Semichah, since you are among the descendants of Eli ha'Kohen (Rosh Hashanah 18a), who was cursed that his children will never receive Semichah (Sanhedrin 14a), do not despair. Many Tana'im ruled that we do not follow the lineage of the father (alone) in these matters, and therefore since your mother is not a descendant of Eli ha'Kohen you may merit to receive a Semichah after all -- RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by SEFER YUCHASIN, Ma'amar ha'Sheni, see MAHARIT, PNEI YEHOSHUA, IYUN YA'AKOV.

34) [line 4] PIRDAH - a female mule
35) [line 5] SHE'TAV'AH - that made it clear that it wanted relations
36) [line 5] MARBI'IN - to bring a male animal upon a female animal
37) [line 10] "[MESIM BAL YICHYU.] REFA'IM BAL YAKUMU..." - "[They are dead, they shall not live;] they are shades, they shall not rise; [therefore have you visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish.]" (Yeshayah 26:14)

38) [line 13] "...KI TAL OROS TALECHA, V'ERETZ REFA'IM TAPIL." - "[Your [righteous] dead men shall live, together with my (i.e. the nation of Yisrael's) dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust;] for your dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the shades of the dead." (Yeshayah 26:19)

39) [line 18] HA'OSEH PERAKMATYA - one who deals in merchandise
40) [line 23] SHE'MEVATZBETZIN V'OLIN - that they will break through (the ground) and rise

41) [line 23] "...V'YATZITZU ME'IR K'ESEV HA'ARETZ." - "[May there be abundance of grain in the land, may it wave on the tops of the mountains; may its fruit be like Lebanon;] and may the men of the city flourish like grass of the earth." (Tehilim 72:16)

42) [line 24] "V'GANOSI EL HA'IR HA'ZOS..." - "For I will defend this city (Yerushalayim), to save it, for My own sake, and for My servant David's sake." (Melachim II 19:34)

43) [line 27] GELUSKA'OS - a delicate bread made from fine white flour
44) [line 27] KELEI MEILAS - garments of fine wool
45) [line 28] "YEHI FISAS BAR BA'ARETZ..." - "May there be abundance of grain in the land..." (Tehilim 72:16) - Rav Yosef interprets the words "Fisas Bar" in two ways. Since "Pisas" means the palm of the hand, and grain this large is not found, it refers to a loaf of bread that is as wide as the palm of the hand. Alternatively, "Pisas" is similar to Kesones *Pasim*, and "Bar" also means pure or clean. As such, these words refer to garments made of pure (clean) fine wool grow from the land (RASHI).

46) [line 29] SHE'TETAMER K'DEKEL - that it will grow as tall as a palm tree
47) [line 30] "YIR'ASH KA'LEVANON PIRYO" - "[May there be abundance of grain in the land, may it wave on the tops of the mountains;] may its fruit be like Lebanon; [and may the men of the city flourish like grass of the earth.]" (Tehilim 72:16)

48) [line 30] MASHREH ES SOLTAH - and makes its fine flour fall to the ground
49) [line 31] MELO FISAS YADO - an amount that fills the palm of his hand
50) [line 31] "...IM CHELEV KILYOS CHITAH..." - "[Butter of cows, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats,] with the fat of kidneys of wheat; [and you did drink the wine of the pure blood of the grape.]" (Devarim 32:14) - The Gemara interprets the plural form of the word "Kilyos" (kidneys).

51) [line 32] KI'SHTEI KILYOS SHEL SHOR HA'GADOL - [the enormous grains of wheat will be] the size of the two kidneys of a large ox

52) [line 32] SHU'AL KINEN B'LEFES - a fox made his den in a turnip
53) [line 33] LITRA SHEL TZIPORI - a measure of weight in Tzipori; the Litra is the Roman Libra, a pound

54) [line 33] SHICHIN - a town or city near Tzipori in the lower Galilee
55) [line 34] BADEI CHARDAL - stalks of mustard
56) [line 34] NIFSHACH - became separated [from its stalk]
57) [line 34] SUKAS YOTZRIN - an booth used by potters
58) [line 35] KELACH SHEL KERUV - a cabbage stalk
59) [line 35] "...V'DAM ENAV TISHTEH CHAMER." - "[Butter of cows, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat;] and you did drink the wine of the pure blood of the grape." (Devarim 32:14)

60) [line 36] ANAVAH ACHAS - one grape
61) [line 36] KARON - a wagon
62) [line 37] PITUS GADOL - a large cask
63) [line 38] GARVEI YAYIN - jugs of wine

64a) [line 38] CHOMER - a measure of capacity equal to one Kur = 30 Se'in


1 Kur (Chomer) = 2 Lesachin
1 Lesech = 5 Efos
1 Efah = 3 Se'in
1 Se'ah (Garav) = 6 Kabin
1 Kav = 4 Lugin
1 Log = 6 Beitzim

1 Beitzah = approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

65) [line 39] "OSRI LA'GEFEN IRO, [VELA'SOREKA BENI ASONO; KIBES BA'YAYIN LEVUSHO, UVE'DAM ANAVIM SUSO.]" - "Binding his foal to the vine, [and his donkey's colt to the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes;]" (Bereishis 49:11)

66) [line 39] AYAR ACHAS - one foal (a young male donkey)
67) [line 41] MERAVEH - intoxicate
68) [line 41] SUSO - his clothes (however, this word also has the connotation of *causing to stray* from the straight path (Hasatah), as wine inebriates a drunkard)

69) [line 42] CHEICH - palate
70) [line 44] D'VASIM ME'CHAMRA - it is sweeter to us than wine
71) [line 45] D'VASIM ME'CHALAVA - it is sweeter to us than milk
72) [line 46] MAKREI DARDEKEI - a teacher of schoolboys (who teaches them to read verses)

73) [line 46] IPAGER - he took a[n unauthorized] leave of absence
74) [line 47] DALIS ACHAS - one grape vine
75) [line 50] KANATIF DUVSHA MI'TE'EINEI - fig-honey was dripping from the fig trees
76) [line 50] V'CHALBA TAYIF MINAIHU - and milk was dripping from them
77) [line 51] MI'LOD L'ONO - from the town of Lod to the town of Ono. Lod was located in the present-day city by that name, southeast of Tel Aviv. During the time of the Gemara it was located on the road that led from Yerushalayim to Ceasaria, and it had a mixed population. Ono was a Jewish town three Mil away from Lod.

78) [line 52] KIDAMTI BA'NESHEF - I arose before dawn
79) [line 52] KARSULAI - my ankles

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