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Kesuvos 106

KESUVOS 106 - has been dedicated by Dr. and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana in honor of the Bar Mitzvah of Yitzchak Yoel Kornfeld

1) [line 2] V'ACHTEI L'DINEI - and he started his case (the case of ha'Hu Gavra)
2) [line 3] YEKARA - honor
3) [line 4] ISTATEIM TA'ANASEI - his pleas were stopped (because he was intimidated)
4) [line 4] SEDER D'ELIYAHU - an early Midrash attributed to the teachings of the prophet Eliyahu, first printed in Venice, 1598

5) [line 6] U'VA'A RACHAMEI - and he prayed
6) [line 7] HAVAH MAV'IS LEI BE'USEI - he was frightening him
7) [line 8] V'AVAD TEIVUSA V'YASIV KAMEI - and he built a box [in which to sit] and sat before him

8) [line 8] AD D'APIK LEI SIDREI - until he finished the entire treatise
9) [line 10] RIS'CHA - anger, wrath [of the Creator] (and a consequential famine)
10) [line 12] D'CHI HAVU RABANAN MIFTEREI MI'KAMEI - when his students (lit. the scholars) would leave him [from the Beis ha'Midrash]

11) [line 13] HAVU FAISHEI - there remained
12) [line 22] TELEISAR AMORA'EI - thirteen Meturgemanim, the ones who expound in a loud voice that which the Chacham says in a low voice

13) [line 23] MESIVTA - Yeshiva
14) [line 23] NAPTZEI GELIMAIHU - and shook out their cloaks
15) [line 24] V'CHASI LEI L'YOMA - and it would block out the sunlight
16) [line 24] V'AMRI B'MA'ARAVA - and they would say in Eretz Yisrael
17) [line 30] V'KARU NAFSHAIHU YASMEI D'YASMEI - and they called themselves "orphans of orphans"

18) [line 31] MEVAKREI MUMIN - the ones who would check animal for blemishes to see whether they were fit to be offered on the Mizbe'ach

19) [line 36] KEMITZAH
(a) When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah (flour offering), a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach.
(b) A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. He next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, using his thumb and smallest finger, until only the Kometz remains.
(c) The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim.
(d) A Minchah that is brought by the Tzibur, a Minchah offered by a Kohen, and a Minchah that is brought together with an animal Korban (the Minchas Nesachim) are entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.

20) [line 38] MAGIHEI SEFARIM - scribes who would check and correct scrolls of Tanach

21) [line 40] HA'ORGOS B'FARACHOS - who weave the curtains of the Beis ha'Mikdash

22) [line 41] MI'KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS - objects dedicated to Hekdesh that become the property of the Beis ha'Mikdash, to be used as needed

23) [line 43] BEIS GARMO - the family of the house of Garmo, who were experts in the art of baking the Lechem ha'Panim

24) [line 44] LECHEM HA'PANIM
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two stacks (Sedarim), six loaves to each stack, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed. (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b) Wooden racks (Kanin) separate the loaves to allow air to circulate so that the bread will not spoil.
(c) A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). Only the Levonah is offered on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

25) [line 44] BEIS AVTINAS - the family of the house of Avtinas, Kohanim who compounded the Ketores (and were the only ones who could identify the Ma'aleh Ashan, an herb that caused the smoke of the Ketores to rise in a column)

26) [line 45] KETORES
(a) The Ketores is the incense that was offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day, in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:

1. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Seraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - sap of the balsam tree.
2. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.
3. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree.
4. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned.
5. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh.
6. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia.
7. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard.
8. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron.
9. 12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus.
10. 3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark.
11. 9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon.
(b) In addition, the following ingredients were added to make it burn well:
1. One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt.
2. A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which contains nitric acid, causing the smoke to rise straight up.
(c) The following two ingredients were used to prepare the Tziporen:
1. 1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye to polish the Tziporen. 2. 3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. The Tziporen was soaked in the Yein Kafrisin. If Yein Kafrisin was not available, the Ketores was compounded instead with CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK - very-old strong white wine.

(d) Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden, probably cyclamen, was also added.

27) [line 46] BED'VAVEI - the curtains that were located in the doorways [merely for privacy]

28) [line 47] HEICHAL - the Sanctuary, which contained the Menorah, the Shulchan for the Lechem ha'Panim, and the Mizbe'ach for the Ketores

29) [line 48] ULAM - the Entrance Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash (that opened onto the Heichal)

30) [line 48] DEVIR - the partition that divided between the Ulam and the Heichal (RASHI to Megilah 10b)

31) [line 48] SHTAYIM KENEGDAN BA'ALIYAH - two curtains were located directly above the curtains of the Devir in the upper story (to separate between the areas corresponding to the Heichal and Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the upper story)

32) [line 49] PARAH
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

33) [line 49] NASHIM YEKAROS - wealthy women


(a) Every year, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Yoma 55:7, "Shekalim").
(b) At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)
(c) There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(d) The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh. The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

35) [line 5] "UCH'CHALOSAM HEVI'U LIFNEI HA'MELECH VI'YHOYADA ES SHE'AR HA'KESEF VA'YA'ASEHU CHELIM L'VEIS HASH-M KLEI SHARES..." - "When they finished, they brought the remaining money before the king and Yehoyada, who made it into utensils for the house of HaSh-m - ministering vessels, [mortars, pans and golden and silver instruments. They continually offered Olos in the house of HaSh-m all the days of Yehoyada.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 24:14)

36) [line 7] D'AKARYACH KESUVEI - the one who taught you Kesuvim
37) [line 8] "ACH LO YE'ASEH BEIS HASH-M SIPOS KESEF...KI L'OSEI HA'MELACHAH YITENUHU..." - "But there were not made for the house of HaSh-m bowls of silver, snuffers, basins, trumpets, any utensils of gold, or utensils of silver, from the money that was brought to the house of the HaSh-m;" (Melachim II 12:14-15) - These verses stipulate that the donations were *not* used for making Klei Shares, while the verse quoted by the Gemara earlier (from Divrei ha'Yamim) describes that they *were* used for making Klei Shares.

38) [line 10] SHE'GAVU V'HOSIRU - that they collected money for the Terumas ha'Lishkah and there remained unused money at the end of the year

39) [line 12] LEV BEIS DIN MASNEH ALEIHEN - [the funds were contributed with] the stipulation that Beis Din could use them for whatever it wants

40) [line 17] SHIRAYIM - a remainder
41) [line 18] HA'OLAH, OLAH RISHONAH - when the verse states, "ha'Olah," it refers to the first Olah that is offered every day, the Olas ha'Tamid (Vayikra 6:5)

42) [line 21] LEVONAH - frankincense. See above, entry #24c

43) [line 21] MOSAR NESACHIM - the remainder of the Nesachim
(a) Mosar Nesachim is the subject of a Machlokes Amora'im (Shekalim 4a, Menachos 90a). Rebbi Chiya bar Yosef says that this is referring to the "fourth Se'ah," i.e. the suppliers of wine, oil and flour for the Beis ha'Mikdash would agree on a price at the time of the harvest; if the price went down, the suppliers would have to give the supplies at the lower price. The extra wine, oil and flour is the Mosar ha'Nesachim.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan says that this is referring to the heaping measure, i.e. the suppliers would give heaping measures of these supplies to the treasurers whereas the treasurers would sell them to the people with a leveled measure; the extra is the Mosar ha'Nesachim (Shekalim 11a)

44) [line 22] LESHACHOS - [the building of] chambers (of the Beis ha'Mikdash)
45) [line 24] SHEYAREI HA'LISHKA - the money that was left over after the Terumas ha'Lishkah (see above, entry #34b)

46) [line 26] MOSAR TERUMAH - the remainder of the Terumas ha'Lishkah (see above, entry #34) on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, at which time they would begin to offer Korbanos from the new Shekalim that were brought for the new year (which began on Rosh Chodesh Nisan)

47) [line 27] RIKU'EI ZAHAV, TZIPUY L'VEIS KODSHEI HA'KODASHIM - flattened sheets of gold that were used to cover the walls and floor of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

(a) In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).
(b) (Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" [Kayitz = cut figs, a common dessert food] to the Mizbe'ach.)

49) [line 36] MEKAITZIN BO ES HA'MIZBE'ACH - they use them to buy Olos that are offered when there are no other sacrifices to bring on the Mizbe'ach (see previous entry)

In honor of the Beis ha'Mikdash, everything is done with extravagance and it is not proper to be skimpy.

51) [line 45] V'LEIKA L'MISVA LEI - and there is nothing to give him

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