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Kesuvos 80

KESUVOS 75-80 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Mr Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is sorely missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

1) [line 1] SHIGRA D'TAMREI - a cake of pressed dates
2) [line 2] CHUVTZA D'TAMREI - (a) date dregs that are left in the barrel after the beer is removed; (b) dates that have been ground in preparation for making beer

3a) [line 4] BECH'ISAR - the amount that can be bought with an Isar, the Roman coin known as an "As," which is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar.


1 Sela = 4 Dinerin
1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in
1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonin
1 Pundeyon = 2 Isarin
1 Isar = 6-8 Prutos (based on Kidushin 12a)
4) [line 6] CHAVILEI ZEMOROS - bundles of sticks
5) [line 11] KI HEICHI D'LO NIFSEDINHU - so that he does not ruin her property
6) [line 12] BEI CHOZA'EI - a district of Bavel on the caravan road, along the Tigris River and its canals

7) [line 13] APIK SHIS ME'AH - he spent 600 Zuzim on traveling expenses
8) [line 27] ARISIN - hired field laborers who receive a percentage (1/2, 1/3 or 1/4) of the produce of the field


9) [line 1] REVACH BEISA - [so that there is] ample revenue [in the house]
10) [line 5] LAV B'FEIRUSH ITMAR, ELA MI'KELALA ITMAR - Yehudah Mar bar Mereimar did not hear it explicitly from Rava; rather it was derived (incorrectly) from his actions

11) [line 13] SHEMA TACHSIF - lest it deteriorate, depreciate in value (through neglect)

12) [line 15] AR'A D'MEKAREV L'MASA - land that is close to the city [that the buyer will not neglect, because the husband will notice]

13) [line 17] SHOMERES YAVAM (YIBUM)
(a) If a married man dies childless, his widow must undergo Yibum (the marriage of a dead man's brother with his wife), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum.
(b) If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum - ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.
(c) The *connection* of the brother to the dead man's wife, which obligates one of the two, is called Zikah. It is comparable to the state of Eirusin (engagement) before a marriage. The Tana of the Mishnah from Yevamos rules that the Zikah "connects" the Yevamah with all of the brothers, not only the oldest. While the Yevamah is waiting for Yibum or Chalitzah, she is called a Shomeres Yavam.

A woman brings into her marriage two types of possessions, as follows:

1. Possessions that the wife owned before marriage, the values of which were estimated and written in the Kesuvah, to be returned to her in full upon divorce or the husband's death. These are called Nichsei Tzon Barzel ("Iron Flock Properties") because their value does not change between the time of marriage and the time of divorce or the husband's death.
2. Possessions that were not estimated and their values were not specified in the Kesuvah. Upon divorce or the husband's death, the property is returned as is, regardless of its appreciation or depreciation (or deterioration) over the years. These are referred to as Nichsei Milug ("Properties that are Plucked"), because for the duration of the marriage the husband may take ("pluck") the produce (Peiros) of these possessions (e.g. reaping the fruit of a field, or plowing with an ox). However, he may not "use up" the property itself (e.g. by digging trenches in the field or slaughtering the ox).

See previous entry, paragraph #2.

16) [line 22] NECHASIM B'CHEZKASAN - those items of Nichsei Tzon Barzel stay in the possession of the person who has legal rights to them (which is a Machlokes Amora'aim, see Bava Basra 158b)

17) [line 31] KOL HA'KODEM ZACHAH - that is, while she is alive (Rashi)
*18*) [line 39] HAREI HI K'CHOL HA'NASHIM V'EIN LAH ELA KESUVAH BILVAD - that is, she only has *one* Kesuvah (the one her husband originally wrote for her), and not two (one from the first marriage and another from the second) - - TOSFOS YOM TOV

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