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Kesuvos 64

1) [line 1] AFCHISU LEI L'DINA ILAVEI? - [Just because Rav Zevid is a great and humble person who will not complain,] you turn around the Halachah [to his detriment]?

2) [line 5] U'MASH'HINAN LAH TREISAR YARCHEI SHATA - we wait for her [to retract her actions] for twelve months

*3*) [line 5] U'MASH'HINAN LAH TREISAR YARCHEI SHATA - (a) we only delay divorcing a rebellious wife for 12 months (all that time applying the penalty listed in the Mishnah), and no longer. (RASHI); (b) instead of divorcing a rebellious wife immediately after four weeks (after which she loses her entire Kesuvah, as Raboseinu said on 63b), we tell the husband that he must wait until the end of 12 months to divorce his wife (ROSH and other Rishonim -- see Insights).

4) [line 8] IGERES MERED - a document detailing a wife's or a husband's refusal of duties

5) [line 18] ZIL! LO MIFKEDAS - Go! You are not commanded [to have children]
6a) [line 20] CHUTRA L'YADA - a cane for my hand (i.e. a son to lean on when I get old)
b) [line 20] U'MARA L'KEVURAH - and a hoe for burial
7) [line 24] KEIVAN D'AGIDA BI - since she is [somewhat] connected to me

(a) According to the Torah law, when a married man dies childless, Yibum is preferable to Chalitzah. Only if his brother does not want to perform Yibum does the Torah command that the ceremony of Chalitzah be performed.
(b) However, since many men do not perform the Mitzvah of Yibum for the sake of the Mitzvah alone, but rather because of beauty or honor or the like, the Tana'im argue as to whether it is preferable to do Yibum with ulterior motives or to perform Chalitzah. The Chachamim claim that Yibum is still preferable. According to Aba Shaul, though, if a Yavam performs Yibum for reasons other than for the sake of the Mitzvah, he is dangerously close to violating the prohibition of Giluy Arayos (forbidden relations) by taking his brother's wife when there is no Mitzvah of Yibum. Therefore he maintains that it is preferable to perform Chalitzah.

9) [line 30] ASTIRA - a silver coin also known as a Sela Medina (equal to 1/8 of a Sela Tzuri or 1/2 of a Dinar)

10) [line 31] MA'IN - silver coins (see below, entry #27a)
11) [last line] D'MIFCHAS KA PACHIS - since we are subtracting [from the value of her Kesuvah]


12) [line 5] HA'MASHREH ES ISHTO AL YEDEI SHALISH - a man who provides for his wife's daily needs through an agent

13) [line 6] KABIN - a measure (see below, entry #27b)
14) [line 8] EDOM - the land of Edom, southeast of the Dead Sea
15) [line 10] GEROGEROS - dried figs
16) [line 10] MANEH DEVEILAH - [a portion of] pressed figs [cut from a rounded cake of pressed figs] weighing one Maneh, approximately 425 grams (13.66 oz.)

17) [line 12] MAPATZ - a mat woven from reeds
18) [line 12] MACHATZELES - a mat; (a Mapatz is softer than a Machatzeles)
19) [line 12] KIPAH L'ROSHAH - a kerchief for her head
20) [line 12] CHAGOR L'MASNEHA - a belt for her waist
21) [line 13] MIN'ALIM MI'MO'ED L'MO'ED - shoes from Yom Tov to Yom Tov, i.e. a new pair of shoes each for Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos

22) [line 13] KELIM SHEL CHAMISHIM ZUZ - clothes that cost 50 Zuzim (this refers to *Zuzei Medina*, which are worth 1/8 of the Zuzim, or Dinerin of Tzor)

23) [line 14] SHECHAKIM - worn out, thin (but not torn) garments
24) [line 15] BELA'OSEIHEN - her winter clothes in their worn condition

25a) [line 18] SHESI - spun warp thread, the longitudinal thread of the loom (which is thinner and harder to make than the woof thread)
b) [line 19] EREV - spun woof thread, the latitudinal thread

(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or *place of Shevisah* for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c) The food used for an Eruv Techumin may even be food that the person himself may not eat, such as wine for a Nazir and Terumah for a non-Kohen. RASHI (Eruvin 26b) and TOSFOS (Pesachim 23a, DH Me'arvin) explain that even though it is unfit for this person, it is still useful as the "food" for an Eruv Techumin, since it can be eaten by someone else. (RASHI to Pesachim ibid., DH Me'arvin, explains that the food *is* edible to the person himself, since a Nazir can annul his vow of Nezirus, and the person who declared the produce Terumah may also repeal his declaration.)

27a) [line 24] PUNDYON (CURRENCY)
1 Sela = 4 Dinerin
1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in
1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonin
1 Pundeyon = 2 Isarin
1 Isar = 6-8 Prutos (based on Kidushin 12a)


1 Sela = 48 Pundeyonin
b) [line 24] SE'IN (MEASURES) 1 Efah = 3 Se'in
1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
1 Kav = 4 Lugin
1 Log = 6 Beitzim
1 Beitzah = approximately .0576 liters or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

c) [line 24] KIKAR HA'LAKU'ACH B'FUNDEYON, ME'ARBA SE'IN L'SELA (according to the *original assumption* of the Gemara)
4 Se'in of wheat flour cost 1 Sela (= 4 Dinerin)
1 Se'ah (= 12 half-Kabin) costs 1 Dinar (=12 Pundeyonin)
1 half-Kav costs 1 Pundeyon

28) [line 25] SHTEI YADOS L'KIKAR, MI'SHALOSH KIKAROS L'KAV - two thirds of a loaf [of wheat bread], where three loaves comprise a Kav
1 loaf of bread = 1/3 Kav
2/3 loaf of bread = 2/9 Kav

29) [line 25] BAYIS HA'MENUGA
(a) For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga (a house that has Tzara'as), see Background to Yevamos 17:21.
(b) When a person is a Metzora, he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.
(c) Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two Pesukim:

1. "veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev." (Vayikra 14:46)
2. "veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav." (ibid. 14:47)
(d) From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.
(e) The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:
1. In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.
2. In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.
3. In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.
4. In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS here, DH Kivan, maintains that the people in the house *do* become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)
30) [line 26] LIFSOL ES HA'GEVIYAH
The Chachamim decreed that a person who eats a half-Pras (2 Beitzim) of food that is Tamei may not eat Terumah. He makes Terumah Pasul if he touches it.

31) [line 26] L'KABEL TUM'AS OCHLIN
(a) All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei.
(b) Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.
(c) The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah.

32) [line 28] AISI TILSA, SHADI ALAIHU - take a third [of the ensuing total], and add it to them (the eight meals)

33) [line 30] TELEISAR - thirteen
34) [line 32] B'ASRA D'YAHAVEI TZIVEI - in a place where the customers provide the storekeepers with the small pieces of wood necessary for baking

35) [line 33] SHITSERI - sixteen
36) [line 34] ORCHEI U'FARCHEI - guests and passersby

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