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Kesuvos 61

KESUVOS 61 - dedicated by Uri Wolfson and Naftali Wilk in honor of Rav Mordechai Rabin of Har Nof, a true beacon of Torah and Chesed.

1) [line 1] BARYEI - healthy people
2) [line 1] BENEI AINANEI - children with large eyes
3) [line 2] KAVREI - fish
4) [line 2] BENEI CHINENEI - charming children
5) [line 2] KARPESA - (O.F. apie) smallage, wild celery (that grows in river beds)
6) [line 3] BENEI ZIVTANEI - beautiful (radiant) children
7) [line 3] KUSBARTA - (O.F. allendre) coriander
8) [line 4] BISRANEI - fleshy
9) [line 5] SHEVOR MALKA - King Shapur II, the king of Persia (ruled 309-379 CE, during the Sassanid Dynasty)

10) [line 6] B'REISH REICHANEI - at the head of the spices; she was the sweetest smelling of all

11) [line 7] BADAK LAN - [Rav Huna bar Chinena] tested us
12) [line 11] D'LAV ORCHAH - she is not accustomed; it is not the accepted practice in her family

14) [line 20] AILIS LACH ITESA B'CHARIKA'I - I brought you a woman in my stead
15) [line 21] HA TARCHA L'DIDI UL'DIDAH - she works for me and for herself
16) [line 26] ORCHEI U'FARCHEI - guests and passersby
17) [line 32] KEIVAN SHE'RE'UYAH L'HACHNIS - (a) if she brought a large enough dowry to buy maidservants even if her dowry did not actually include maidservants (RASHI); (b) if she was from a social standing that it would have been proper for her to have maids rather than work (RITVA)

18) [line 34] SHE'TZIMTZEMAH LO MI'SHELAH - if she scrounged from her allowance to be able to afford maidservants

19) [line 43] MECHALFA LEI DEVIS'HU B'YADA DI'SEMALA - his wife switched to serve him left-handed

20) [line 43] PUMA D'CHUVA - [rather than place the drink directly in front of him she placed it] on top of an open cask

21) [line 43] BEI SADYA - a cushion
22) [line 44] SHARSHIFA- a chair or footstool
23) [line 44] MASH'HIN BIFNEI HA'SHAMASH - one may refrain from feeding the waiter until after the meal

24) [line 46] TAVSHILA D'ARDEI - a mushroom dish
25) [line 46] ISTAKNI - I would have become dangerously ill
26) [line 47] GARGELIDEI D'LIFTA B'CHALA - scalloped turnips in vinegar
27) [line 48] TAMARTA D'HANUNISA - a juicy date
28) [line 48] KIYUHA - pungency
29) [line 49] SAFI MI'KOL MINA U'MINA - he permitted the waiter to eat from each type of food

30) [last line] IZGUR MALKA - King Yazdegerd I, the king of Persia (ruled 399-420 CE, during the Sassanid Dynasty)

31) [last line] A'TURNAGA D'MALKA - the royal servant in charge of meals


32) [line 1] D'CHAVAR APEI - his face went pale
33) [line 3] MAN D'AVID HACHI PASIL L'MA'ACHAL D'MALKA - he who makes such food is unworthy of preparing food for the king

34) [line 5] DAVAR ACHER CHAZA'I BEI - I saw the meat of a pig [diseased with Tzara'as] in it

35) [line 9] CHAZAI RU'ACH TZARA'AS D'KA PARCHAH ILAVEI - I saw that the spirit of Tzara'as had come over Mar Zutra

36) [line 10] ROMA'AH - a Roman
37) [line 11] RIMNEI - berries
38) [line 11] PALI V'ACHAL KAMAH - he cracked them open and ate them in front of her
39) [line 12] KOL MAYA D'TZA'ARI LAH BELATEI - she swallowed all the saliva (that she had salivated by seeing him eat)

40) [line 13] AD D'ZAG LAH - her face and stomach swelled till they were transparent
41) [line 13] IY MASINA LACH, MINSAVAS LI? - if I will heal you, will you marry me?
42) [line 16] TUF SHADA'I TUF SHADA'I - spit it out
43) [line 16] AD D'NAFKA MINAH KI HUTZA YARKA - until she threw up a substance that resembled a dark green palm leaf

44) [line 17] V'ITSI'AS - and she was cured
45) [line 19] LA'AMOD LIFNEI AVIV - to stand before [and serve] his father
46) [line 23] MASRI'ACH ES HA'PEH - causes bad breath
47) [line 24] U'MESHARBET ES HA'SEFASAYIM - causes the lips to swell
48) [line 24] KISNA ROMA'AH - Roman flax

49a) [line 27] SHEFUD - a spit. A spit that was used on Yom Tov becomes Muktzah. Rav Malchiyo permits moving it indirectly to the side.
b) [line 27] SHEFACHOS - maidservants. Rav Malchiyo (or Rav Malchiya, according to Rav Papa) rules that the Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer quoted in the *Mishnah* in Kesuvos (5:5, Daf 59b), that even a bride who brings one hundred maidservants into the new household must do productive physical work, because idleness only leads to immorality.
c) [line 27] GUMOS - hair follicles, cavities. Rav Malchiyo rules (Nidah 52a) that if a young woman has two hair follicles, whether they have hair in them or not, she is considered an adult.

50a) [line 27] BELURIS - the long hair grown at the back of the head by the Romans and Greeks in honor of their gods, that was offered to their gods once a year. Rav Malchiya qualified the *Beraisa* (Avodah Zarah 29a) explaining that the distance around the Beluris that must be left by a Jewish barber cutting an idol worshipper's hair is three Etzba'os (fingerbreadths).
b) [line 27] EFER MAKLEH - ashes from burned wood. Rav Malchiya prohibited placing Efer Makleh on a wound because of its similarity to tattooing (Makos 21a).
c) [line 27] GEVINAH - cheese. Rav Malchiya explained (Avodah Zarah 35b) that the reason for the prohibition of the *Mishnah* (ibid. 29b) against cheeses made by Nochrim is because they smear pig fat on them.

51) [line 28] V'SIMANACH MASNISA MALKESA - the Siman to know which statements were made by Rav Malchiya and which by Rav Malchio, is that those Halachos that are mentioned in a Misnah or Beraisa were stated by Rav Malchia (a) and the other three Halachos were stated by Rav Malchiyo (RASHBAM, cited by TOSFOS DH Ika); (b) as well as the Halachic teaching regarding Efer Makleh. Only the Halachos of Shefud and Gumos were stated by Rav Malchiyo (RASHI, RABEINU TAM, cited by TOSFOS DH Ika)

52) [line 30] D'MITALELA B'GURYASA KITNAYASA U'NEDARSHIR - if she keeps herself occupied with pet puppies and games [she will not go insane but she may become licentious]

53) [line 30] HA'MADIR ES ISHTO MI'TASHMISH HA'MITAH - one who makes a Neder prohibiting relations with his wife

54) [line 33] HA'TAYALIN - see 62a
55) [line 33] HA'CHAMARIM - donkey drivers
56) [line 34] HA'GAMALIM - camel drivers
57) [line 34] SAPANIM - sailors

(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

59) [line 36] NIDAH
By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(The current practice is to consider all women who have a show of blood to be a Zavah and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.

60) [line 37] D'HU GARIM LAH - he caused her [abstinence)]
61) [line 38] MACHLOKES B'MEFARESH - the argument [between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel] is only when the husband set an explicit time limit [to his Neder]

62) [line 38] AVAL BI'STAM - but if the Neder was open-ended he must divorce her immediately

63) [line 41] YA'AMID PARNAS - he must appoint a benefactor [to provide her with sustenance]

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