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Kesuvos 56

KESUVOS 55 & 56 - have been dedicated by Rabbi Avi Feldman and his sisters in memory of their mother (yahrzeit: 11 Iyar), ha'Rabbanit Sara Dvasya bas Rav Mordechai.

1) [line 3] IKRUVEI DA'ATA - (lit. closeness of minds) closeness [due to the impending connections through marriage]

2) [line 6] PUK! KARI KERA'ACH L'VARA! - Go teach your Halachos outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash] (i.e. your opinion about this Halachah is unacceptable)

3) [line 14] D'LAT RAV NACHMAN - that Rav Nachman cursed
4) [line 15] HACHI V'HACHI SEHEVEI - such-and-such a thing should happen to him
5) [line 32] YACHLIF - he should write a new bill of debt for the remaining amount (using the date on which the payment was made -- RASHI)

6) [line 33] SHOVER - a receipt
7) [line 33] KESHE'SHOVERTAH MI'TOCHAH - [our Mishnah is referring to a case] where the receipt is written inside the Kesuvah itself

8) [line 35] MIRCHAS TEVARTA - the receipt will get lost
9) [line 35] HACHA, VADAI YAHAV LAH? - in our case, has he given her any money [that we should worry about him suffering a loss]?

10) [line 36] MILSA B'ALMA HI D'AMRAH LEI - she merely stated the matter to him [that she forgoes part of the Kesuvah]

11) [line 36] IY NATREI, NATREI - if he guards it (the Shover), it will be useful in the future

12*) [line 39] TA'AMA, D'CHASVAH LEI - that is, if she *writes* that she is foregoing the Kesuvah, it becomes a Shtar to the effect that she has foregone the Kesuvah. If she just *speaks out* that she is foregoing the Kesuvah, though, it is no more than a Tenai. (See Rashi 56b DH Rebbi Yosi)

13a) [line 41] SHE'EIR - food
b) [line 42] KESUS - clothing
c) [line 42] ONAH - the obligation of a husband with regard to marital relations

14) [line 45] AD SHE'YICHTOV LAH - unless he writes her [a document containing the words Din u'Devarim...] (while she is still an Arusah)

15) [last line] DIN U'DEVARIM EIN LI B'NICHSEICH - I have no claim in court on your properties [and not even the right to complain -- TOSFOS YOM TOV, Kesuvos 9:1 DH Din]


16) [line 4] CHAMARIM - donkey-drivers (who have produce to sell)
17) [line 7] CHADASH - new grain that has not had sufficient time to dry (RASHI, RABEINU TAM in Tosfos 24a)

18) [line 7] EINO MESUKAN - fruits from which Terumos and Ma'asros were not separated
19) [line 10] SAFEK D'DIVREIHEM - a Rabbinic law in which there is a doubt [since most unlearned people do separate Terumos and Ma'asros]

20a) [line 11] BI'DEMAI HEIKILU - the Rabanan were lenient regarding Demai, since most unlearned people do separate Terumos and Ma'asros

(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" -- "what is this?").
(b) Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

21) [line 14] LO SAMCHA DA'ATAH - she does not rely on him (she is afraid that he will divorce her since she thinks that he does not have to pay her the full value of her Kesuvah)

*22*) [line 28] V'CHI MAH TIKUN HA'OLAM YESH B'ZU, V'HALO EIN KETZUVIN U'FOCHASIN - that is, Rebbi Yosi is saying, like the Tana Kama, that a man cannot set aside Metaltelim for his wife's Kesuvah. Doing so would be a breach of "Tikun ha'Olam," since they depreciate in value.

23) [line 32] KIBEL ALAV ACHRAYUS - the husband accepted upon himself Achrayus (see Background to Kesuvos 51:9) to replace the objects of the dowry if they are lost [but he did not accept to replace their original value if they *decreased in value*]

24) [line 37] LO YAD'AH D'SACHIL - it is impossible for her to know [whether or not, or by how much the objects included in the dowry would go down in value] such that she should forgo the decrease

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