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Kesuvos 50

1) [line 1] V'ASITINHU LI'ZENEI - and I forced him (the son) (orally -- TOSFOS) to provide him (the father) with sustenance

2) [line 3] ASA'INHU BA'I? - would he have needed to force him?

The Sanhedrin, while in Usha, enacted a decree that if someone wants to give Tzedakah liberally, he should not give more than a fifth of his possessions

4) [line 11] V'HA, LO DAMI ISURA BASRA L'ISURA KAMA - but consider [the simple arithmetic]; the second tenth is not equal to the first tenth

5) [line 14] U'SHEMU'OS HALALU MISMA'ATOS V'HOLCHOS - and [the number of Amora'im listed who quote] the preceding teachings [of the scholars or Usha] declines [from three to two to one, from Sugya to Sugya]

6) [line 16] MISGALGEL IM BENO - [a father] "rolls" with his son, (using soft, encouraging words as an incentive to train his son to learn Torah properly, without inflicting physical punishment upon him)

7) [line 17] YORED IMO L'CHAYAV - he should make sure to use physical punishment or meager rations as an incentive to train his son to learn Torah properly

8) [line 19] BATZIR MI'BAR SHIS - less than six years old
9) [line 19] LO SAKBIL - do not accept [as a student]
10) [line 20] V'SAFI LEI K'SORA - and force-feed him (teach him the Torah in abundance) like one force-feeds an ox

11) [line 24] AMRAH LI EM - my "mother" told me (Abaye was an orphan and he called his foster mother "Em")

12) [line 27] D'TARKA LEI AKRABA - who was stung by a scorpion
13) [line 27] B'YOMA D'MISHLAM SHIS - on the last day of the sixth year of his life (the day before his sixth birthday)

14) [line 28] LO CHAYEI - can not live (without a known cure -- RASHI)
15) [line 28] ASUTEI - his cure
16) [line 28] MARARTA D'DAYAH CHIVARTA B'SHICHRA - the gallbladder of a white vulture (O.F. voltur) in beer

17) [line 29] NESHAFYEI V'NASHKEYEI - rub it on him and make him drink from it
18) [line 30] BAR SHATA - one year old
19) [line 30] ZIBURA - a hornet or bee
20) [line 31] ATZVASA D'DIKLA - the fibrous substance just under the surface of the date palm

21) [line 36] CHALISH V'GAMIR - [he actually becomes] weak *and* well-learned

22) [line 38] NICHSEI MILUG
A woman brings into her marriage two types of possessions, as follows:

1. Possessions that the wife owned before marriage, the values of which were estimated and written in the Kesuvah, to be returned to her in full upon divorce or the husband's death. These are called Nichsei Tzon Barzel ("Iron Flock Properties") because their value does not change between the time of marriage and the time of divorce or the husband's death.
2. Possessions that were not estimated and their values were not specified in the Kesuvah. Upon divorce or the husband's death, the property is returned as is, regardless of its appreciation or depreciation (or deterioration) over the years. These are referred to as Nichsei Milug ("Properties that are Plucked"), because for the duration of the marriage the husband may take ("pluck") the produce (Peiros) of these possessions (e.g. reaping the fruit of a field, or plowing with an ox). However, he may not "use up" the property itself (e.g. by digging trenches in the field or slaughtering the ox).
23) [line 41] UCHLUSA D'USHA - at a gathering of scholars in Usha
24) [line 43] TANA MINEI ARBE'IN ZIMNIN - he learned it from him 40 times
25) [line 43] V'DAMI LEI K'MAN D'MANCHA LEI B'CHISESEI - and he remembered it very well (lit. and it was similar to him), as if it were placed in his pocket

26) [last line] D'LO ASI L'INTZUEYI - (a) there will not be bickering between the relatives over the person's estate, since everyone knows that the sons inherit the estate when there are living children or grandchildren. Therefore the courts will not have to deal with estate quarrels as long as everyone is blessed with children and grandchildren. (RASHI); (b) there will not be bickering between the children if all of the children have their own children. If one child does not have children, though, there might be bickering, since the father will bequeath a greater portion of his estate to the child that has his own children, and will not leave the estate for them to split equally (TOSFOS, cited by the RITVA); (c) there will not be quarreling between the Tzedukim and the judges of Israel over estate law if everyone has children who themselves have *sons* (as opposed to daughters). If a person has a son and daughter, and the son dies leaving behind a daughter, the Tzedukim ruled that the estate is split equally among the daughter and granddaughter while the Chachamim ruled that it is given to the granddaughter. If there is a *grandson*, though, there will be no quarreling, since even the Tzedukim will agree that the grandson gets the entire estate. (ibid.)


27) [line 4] AVASH ALEI KULEI ALMA - everyone shouted at him

One of the stipulations of marriage that is imposed by Beis Din and that is written explicitly in the Kesuvah (the Jewish marriage contract) is called "Kesuvas Benin Dichrin." If the wife dies before her husband, her sons inherit the full value of her Kesuvah after he dies (and not the sons of his other wives), aside from the remainder of the estate (which is split equally among all of the sons).

29) [line 9] ME'CHITEI D'ALIYAH - from the wheat [that is stored] in the loft
30) [line 10] PARNASAH HAVYAH - [he allotted the wheat to them] as a dowry
31) [line 11] ME'ILVAYA D'AV - according to the estimate that Beis Din makes to judge the father's generosity or stinginess (with regard to how much of a dowry he would have given to his daughters had he been alive)

32) [line 22] V'DON DAYANEI D'NAHARDA'A - and the judges of Neharde'a ruled [that the daughters may receive their Mezonos (sustenance) from the Metaltelin (chattels) of their father's estate]

33) [line 22] V'AGVI RAV CHANA BAR BIZNA - and Rav Chana bar Bizna seized and apportioned [Mezonos for the daughters from the Metaltelin of their father's estate]

34) [line 24] MAGVINA LECHU L'APADNAICHU MINAICHU - or I will confiscate your (a) mansion; or (b) courtyard (both sources ARUCH) from you

35) [line 34] MI'TAMREI D'AL BUDYA - from the dates that [have been picked and] are lying on the receiving mats

36) [last line] D'CHAZYA L'VUDYA - that are almost ready to be picked, but still need to be on the tree

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