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Kesuvos 49

KESUVOS 49 (13 Iyar) - has been dedicated by Zvi and Tamara Sand of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Zvi's grandfather, Meir ben Reb Benzion Sand.

1) [line 1] HEICHA D'HADRA L'VEI NASHA - in a case when she goes back to her father's household (before arriving at the groom's home)

2) [line 2] KEVAR PASKAH TANA D'VEI REBBI YISHMAEL - the Tana from the Yeshiva of Rebbi Yishmael has already set down that law (that the father may not annul her vows) [and he learned it from a different verse]

3) [line 6] MUTZEIS MI'CHELAL AV - she is removed from her father's domain (from the time that she gets married)

4) [line 25] KEREM B'YAVNEH - the Yeshiva in Yavneh where the students sat in rows resembling grapevines in a vineyard

(a) There are number of stipulations of marriage which are imposed by Beis Din and some of which are written explicitly in the Kesuvah (the Jewish marriage contract). These are in addition to the basic obligations a man has to his wife according to the Torah. Those stipulations which obligate the husband to his wife are:

1. A husband must redeem his wife if she is a taken captive. If he is not a Kohen, he must take her back into his house; if he is a Kohen he must redeem her and divorce her so that she can remarry. He may not (divorce her and) give her the money of the Kesuvah so that she should redeem herself.
2. As long as they are married, he must provide his wife with all the medical care that she needs.
3. If she dies before her husband, her sons inherit the full value of her Kesuvah when he dies (and not the sons of his other wives), aside from the remainder of the estate (which is split equally between all of the brothers). This is called "Kesuvas Benin Dichrin."
4. After he dies, his daughters must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived, and must be provided for by his household, until they become married.
5. If he dies before his wife, his wife must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived and must be provided for by his household until she remarries. (This stipulation was only made in Yerushalayim and the Galil. In Yehudah, the heirs reserved for themselves the right to give her the value of her Kesuvah and have her find herself a new home.) (Mishnayos Kesuvos 4:7-12)
(b) A husband is obligated to keep these conditions even if he omitted them from the Kesuvah, or did not give his wife a Kesuvah.

6) [line 29] BITO NAMI, CHOVAH HU D'LEIKA, HA MITZVAH IKA? - And in addition, with regard to his daughter (whom the Mishnah discusses), there is no *obligation* for the father to provide her with sustenance; does this mean that he fulfills a Mitzvah if he does?

7) [line 35] MISHUM ZILUSA - because of their disgrace (of having to beg for food)


8) [line 12] USHA - the Beis Din (Sanhedrina) of Usha, a city in the western part of the lower Galilee; it was one of the ten places to which the Sanhedrin was exiled

9) [line 16] YAROD - (a) a type of serpent; (b) a bird that is similar to an ostrich (Tosefta Kilayim 5:8); (c) a jackal (based on Yeshayah 13:22, 34:13)

10) [line 16] A'BENEI MASA SHADYA - casts [the welfare of] her young upon the people of the town

11) [line 17] KEFU LEI ASISA B'TZIBURA - turn over a mortar for him in public (a) upon which he will stand; or (b) upon which the community officer will stand

12) [line 18] ORVA BA'I (BANEHA) [BANEI] - a raven wants children
13) [line 20] "...LI'VNEI OREV ASHER YIKRA'U." - "[He gives to the beast his food,] and to the young ravens which cry." (Tehilim 147:9)

14a) [line 21] CHIVREI - white
b) [line 21] UCHMEI - black
c) [line 21] HA B'CHIVREI; HA B'UCHMEI - (a) black ravens are cruel to their young, which are born white; when their feathers change color, they are no longer cruel to them (RASHI); (b) there are two different types of ravens, black and white; one type is cruel to its young while the other is not (TOSFOS)

15) [line 23] D'LO AMID - [about a person] who is not wealthy
16) [line 24] KAFINAN LEI - we force him
17) [line 31] B'IGARTEI - in his letter
18) [line 42] GACHIN - he bent over
19) [line 42] V'NASHKEI L'REBBI YONASAN A'KAR'EI - and kissed Rebbi Yonasan on his feet

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