(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof

Ask A Question on the daf

Previous daf

Kesuvos 28

1) [line 2] KEFAR KATAN NIDON K'SHECHUNAH - a small village has the same ruling as a neighborhood (they may not live in the same village)

2) [line 10] D'AGIR MEIGAR - he rented the dwelling (perhaps the ruling that she has to move is dealing with a case where he had merely rented his dwelling)

3) [line 11] "HINEH ..." - "Behold, Hashem will cause you to wander an intense wandering [and He will make you go around far away places]" (Yeshayah 22:)

4) [line 12] TILTULEI D'GAVRA KASHIN MID'ITESA - displacement is more taxing on a man than on a woman

5) [line 16] SHEMUTEI MESHAMTINAN LEHU (SHAMTA / NIDUY) - we put them in Niduy (excommunication)
(a) The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.
(b) No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibits it.
(c) Even if the time of the Cherem or Niduy has finished, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (Shulchan Aruch 334:27 and Rema 334:24)

6) [line 17] NEGUDEI - lashing
7) [line 21] SHE'EIN LIBO GAS BAH - he is not [intimately] familiar with her
8) [line 24] EVEL RABASI - a tractate consisting of a compilation of Beraisos dealing with the laws of mourning

9) [line 29] D'LO GAISEI BAHADADI - they did not act intimately familiar with one another

10) [line 34] B'HINUMA - (a) with a dome-shaped canopy of myrtle branches above her (RASHI to 17b); (b) wearing a tiara on which is a design of the city Yerushalayim; (c) in the manner that Besulos appear at their weddings, each place according to its custom (RABEINU CHANANEL 15b); (d) wearing a thin scarf that covered her face

11) [line 35] ROSHAH PARU'A - with her hair undone (which was customary of virgin brides to do)

12) [line 36] HAYAH CHOLEK IMANU AL HA'GOREN - would take a portion of Terumah along with us by the threshing floor

13) [line 37] BEIS HA'PERAS
(a) Beis ha'Peras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Peras:

1. A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa
2. A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS Kesuvos 24b; RASH Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).
3. A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:
i. Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - ME'IRI ibid.].
ii. Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAH of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)
iii. The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim -- see Vilna Gaon Choshen Mishpat 377:2)
(b) The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are *broken* (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Peras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's *feet* (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.
(c) In the first type of Beis ha'Peras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

14) [line 38] MA'AMAD - a privately owned place reserved for "Ma'amad." In certain areas, after burying the dead the funeral escort would walk a bit and then stop and sit down to comfort the relatives of the deceased and to mourn ("Ma'amad u'Moshav"). They would repeat this procedure seven times. (RASHBAM Bava Basra 100b)

15) [line 38] MISPED - a privately owned place reserved for eulogizing family members

16) [line 41] EIMSEI D'RABEI - [he has] reverence for his teacher (and therefore will recognize his signature)

17) [line 43] KIYUM SHETAROS
Mid'Oraisa, a Shtar or contract which was written legally and signed by witnesses is considered absolute proof. The Chachamim, out of fear of forgeries, required that every Shtar be validated ("Kiyum") in one of the following manners:
1) The witnesses themselves attest to the validity of their signatures.
2) Other witnesses who recognize the signatures attest to their validity
3) The signatures are matched to those on a previously validated Shtar


18) [line 1] APOTROPOS - (O.F. seneschal) steward, manager of the household (RASHI Sukah 27a)

19) [line 13] HAYU MA'ALIN MI'TERUMAH L'YUCHASIN - they would verify a person [whose lineange was not known] as a Kohen based upon the fact that people apportion Terumah to him

20) [line 21] CHAZA B'ASREI D'REBBI YOSI - he (Rebbi Elazar bar Tzadok) saw [people apportioning Terumah to the slave of a Kohen] in the place [that follows the Halachic rulings] of Rebbi Yosi

21) [line 24] MENAPE'ACH ADAM - a person blows
22) [line 26] SHE'NIDASH - that was trampled
23) [line 31] APUKEI MAMONA LO MAFKINAN - we do not take away a person's money [based on his testimony]

24) [line 34] KETZATZAH - A ceremony performed by family members when one of the family marries improperly, as sign of breaking family ties

25) [line 34] MATANOS
(a) Whenever a person slaughters an ox, sheep or goat (that is not Kodshim), he must give to a Kohen the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah (the foreleg, the [lower] jaw, and the maw or abomasum [the last of a cow's four stomachs] (Devarim 18:3). 1. The ZERO'A consists of the two upper limbs of the right foreleg, from the knee until the top of the shoulder blade; 2. The LECHAYAYIM consists of the lower jaw, from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue; 3. The KEIVAH consists of the maw together with its Chelev, but the Minhag of the Kohanim is to let the animal's owner keep the Chelev.
(b) Although one must give the Zero'a, Lechayayim and Keivah to a Kohen, they may be eaten by a non-Kohen

26) [line 38] A'HAI - on which [of the above cases does Rebbi Yochanan say his ruling]

27) [line 41] MEIDAK HAVAH DAYIK - he was meticulous in his perception

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,