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Kesuvos 21

KESUVOS 21-23 (Seder night, and Chol ha'Moed Pesach) - have been anonymously dedicated by a unique Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah living in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.

1) [line 7] KANAFIK NAKI RIV'A D'MAMONA - three quarters (lit. less a quarter) of the money is being extracted [on the basis of one of the witnesses' testimony; we are relying on him totally on his own signature and partially on the other's signature]

2) [line 18] A'CHASPA - on a potsherd
3) [line 18] A'MEGILASA - on a scroll
5) [line 26] VE'AD'CHAD D'IMEI - and on the one who is with him (i.e. the other witness)

6) [line 27] ASHRENUHI V'KIYAMNUHI KID'CHAZI - we certified and validated the Shtar properly with Kiyum

7) [last line] LO TATZISINHU - do not listen (pay attention) to them


8) [line 2] SHUMSHEMEI - sesame seeds
9) [line 5] KALSAH - praised it
10) [line 13] ASHARTA D'DAYANEI - confirmation of Kiyum written by the Beis Din

11) [line 18] ED NA'ASEH DAYAN - a witness can become a judge (in certain cases, one can serve both as a witness and a Dayan on the same case, such as for Kidush ha'Chodesh)

12) [line 34] MEKUDASH HA'CHODESH - the declaration that Beis Din makes to proclaim the new month
(a) The Hebrew calendar month, which determines the Jewish holidays, begins with each new revolution of the moon, at the point after it wanes completely and begins to wax anew.
(b) When the Sanhedrin of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "Supreme Court") convened in Eretz Yisrael, the new month was fixed and sanctified according to the testimony of witnesses. A person who sees the moon (as it begins to grow and is just visible) traveled to the Sanhedrin, or to a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin, to testify. The place where the Beis Din convened to accept testimony was known as the Beis ha'Va'ad. Beis Din cross-examined the witnesses there, and when they were convinced of the accuracy of the testimonies, they announced the beginning of the new month.
(c) Today, mathematical calculations are used to determine the beginning of the new month. According to RAMBAM (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to determine the beginning of the month mathematically when there is no Sanhedrin, and through testimony when there is one.

13) [line 34] SHE'EIN HA'YACHID NE'EMAN AL YEDEI ATZMO - because one judge is not believed [to proclaim the new month] by himself

14) [line 42] KARA IR'ER - objections [about his fitness to be a Dayan] occurred (i.e. he was found to be unfit to be a Dayan)

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