POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Horayos 13
HORAYOS 12-14 - One week of study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita
Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok
Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly
in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His
Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.
1) PRECEDENCE AMONG "KORBANOS"
(a) (Mishnah): The Par of the Kohen Gadol and the Par of the
Tzibur...(the Kohen's Par is offered first).
2) PRECEDENCES AMONG PEOPLE
(b) Question: How do we know this?
(c) Answer (Beraisa) Question: He will burn (the Par of the
Tzibur) as he burned the *first* Par" - what does this
(d) Answer: That the first Par mentioned in the Parshah (of a
Mashu'ach) is entirely offered before the Tzibur's Par.
(e) (Beraisa): If the Par of the Kohen Gadol and the Par of
the Tzibur are waiting to be offered, the Kohen Gadol
offers his Par first, because he atones, and the Tzibur
1. It is proper that the atoner should get atonement
before the ones he atones for - "(The Kohen Gadol)
will atone for himself and his household and the
whole Tzibur of Yisrael".
(f) If the Tzibur sinned through Hora'ah in idolatry and
another Mitzvah - the Par for the other Mitzvah is
(g) Question: Why is this?
(h) Answer: The Par for the other Mitzvah is a Chatas, the
Par for idolatry is an Olah;
1. (Beraisa) Question: "He will offer the Chatas
*first*" - what does this teach?
(i) The Par offered for idolatry precedes the Sa'ir for
i. It need not teach that the Chatas is offered
first - it already says, "The second he will
offer as an Olah"!
2. Answer: Rather, it teaches a Klal - a Chatas always
precedes an Olah that accompanies it.
i. The Halachah is, even a Chatas ha'Of precedes
an Olas Behemah.
(j) Question: But the Par is an Olah and the Sa'ir is a
(k) Answer #1 (Rabah bar Mari): "Chatas" is written missing
an 'Aleph' to hint that it is not first.
(l) Answer #2 (Rava): It says "Like its law" - like the order
in which the Torah writes them (the Par is mentioned
(m) The Tzibur's Sa'ir for idolatry precedes the Nasi's Sa'ir
1. A Korban of the Tzibur precedes the Korban of an
(n) The Nasi's Sa'ir precedes the Se'irah (Chatas) of a
1. The Korban of the king precedes that of a commoner.
(o) The Se'irah of a commoner precedes the Kisvah of a
(p) Contradiction (Beraisa): The Kisvah of a commoner
precedes the Se'irah of a commoner.
(q) Answer (Abaye): Tana'im argue which is offered first.
1. The first Tana holds that a Se'irah has precedence,
because an individual must bring it for idolatry;
(r) The Omer (the barley Minchah of the second day of Pesach)
precedes the lamb brought with it; the Shtei ha'Lechem
(the Minchah brought on Shavu'os) precedes the lambs
brought with it;
2. The second Tana holds that a Kisvah has precedence,
because its tail is offered.
1. The rule is - a Korban on account of the day
precedes a Korban that accompanies a Minchah.
(a) (Mishnah): A man precedes a woman regarding sustaining
their lives and returning a lost object;
3) PRECEDENCE AMONG LINEAGES
(b) A woman precedes a man regarding clothing and to be
redeemed from captivity;
1. If both are standing for sexual exploitation, we
redeem the man first.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): If Reuven, his father and his Rebbi
are all in captivity, Reuven first redeems himself, then
his Rebbi, then his father.
1. If his mother was captured, he redeems her first.
(d) A Chacham precedes Melech Yisrael;
1. This is because not everyone is fit to be a Chacham,
but everyone is fit to reign.
(e) A king precedes the Kohen Gadol - "The Melech said (to
the Kohen Gadol...) of your master (i.e. myself)".
(f) A Kohen Gadol precedes a prophet - "Tzadok ha'Kohen and
Noson ha'Navi" - Tzadok is mentioned first.
1. Also: "Yehoshua ha'Kohen ha'Gadol, you and your
(g) The hierarchy of Kohanim (from top down) - a Mashu'ach; a
Merubah Begadim; a Mashu'ach she'Avar (he was temporarily
disqualified because of Tum'ah); a Mashu'ach that became
blemished; Machu'ach Milchamah; the Segan (the Kohen
prepared to substitute, in case the Kohen Gadol becomes
disqualified); the Amarkal;
2. Suggestion: Perhaps his colleagues are commoners.
3. Rejection: "They are Anshei Mofes"
i. "Mofes" denotes a prophet - "He will show you a
sign or Mofes (wonder)".
1. Question: Who is the Amarkal?
(h) After the Amarkal - a Gizbar (treasurer of Hekdesh); a
head of a Mishmar (one of the 24 divisions of Kohanim,
the Mishmaros alternated serving in the Mikdash); a head
of a Beis Av (one of six subdivisions of a Mishmar, each
served one day of the week); a regular Kohen.
2. Answer (Rav Chisda): The one who Amar Kula (says
everything, i.e. the Kohen appointed over everyone).
(i) Question: If the Segan or the Machu'ach Milchamah must
become Tamei, which has precedence (to remain Tahor)?
(j) Answer (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Nachman - Beraisa): If the
Segan and Machu'ach Milchamah encountered an unattended
corpse, the Machu'ach Milchamah should bury it, for if
the Kohen Gadol will be disqualified, the Segan will
substitute for him.
(k) Contradiction (Beraisa): The Machu'ach Milchamah is above
(l) Answer (Ravina): The Machu'ach Milchamah has precedence
regarding sustenance (but regarding Tum'ah, the Segan has
(a) (Mishnah): The hierarchy of lineages (from top down) -
Kohen; Levi; Yisrael; Mamzer; Nasin (a descendant of the
Giv'onim, who converted through trickery; they are like
slaves by Rabbinic decree); convert; freed slave.
4) THINGS GOOD AND BAD FOR MEMORY
1. This is when they are equal in Chachmah - but a
Mamzer who is a Chacham precedes a Kohen Gadol that
is an ignoramus!
(b) (Gemara): Kohen precedes Levi - "(Hash-m) separated
Aharon to be Kodesh Kodoshim".
1. Levi precedes Yisrael - "Hash-m separated the Shevet
(c) (Mishnah): This is when they are equal in Chachmah, but a
Mamzer Chacham precedes an ignoramus Kohen Gadol.
2. Yisrael precedes Mamzer, because a Yisrael has
(proper) lineage, a Mamzer does not;
3. Mamzer precedes Nasin, because a Mamzer comes from a
Yisrael, a Nasin does not;
4. A Nasin precedes a convert, because a Nasin grew up
in Kedushah, a convert did not;
5. A convert precedes a freed slave, because a convert
is not cursed, a slave is cursed (Kena'an was cursed
that his descendants would be slaves.)
(d) Question: What is the source of this?
(e) Answer (Rav Acha b'Rebbi Chanina): "(Torah) is dearer
than Peninim (pearls)" - dearer than a Kohen Gadol who
enters Lifnai v'Lifnim (the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim).
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): A freed slave *should*
precede a convert, because a freed slave grew up in
Kedushah, a convert did not;
(f) Question: Why are men more eager to marry a convert than
a freed slave?
i. A convert comes first, because a convert is not
cursed, a slave is cursed.
(g) Answer #1 (R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok): A convert is not
cursed, a slave is cursed;
(h) Answer #2: Also, a convert guarded herself (from wanton
relations, because she planned to convert); a freed slave
did not guard herself (she did not know that she would be
(a) Question: Why does a dog recognize his owner, but a cat
(b) Answer (R. Eliezer): Even one who eats from what a mouse
ate from, such a person forgets - cats eat mice, all the
more so they forget!
(c) Question: Why are mice constantly chased?
(d) Answer (R. Eliezer): Their conduct wickedly.
(e) Question: How is this?
(f) Answer (Rava): They bite even garments (even though they
get no benefit from this).
5) HONORING THE NASI
1. (Rav Papa): They bite even the handle of a shovel!
(g) (Beraisa): Five things make a person forget his learning:
1. Eating from what a mouse ate from;
(h) Five things restore a person's learning:
2. Eating the heart of an animal;
3. Eating olives frequently;
4. Drinking water left over from washing;
5. Washing one foot over the other.
i. Some say, also sleeping with his head on his
1. Eating bread baked on coals (all the more so, the
(i) (Beraisa): Regular consumption of olive oil (restores
learning) - this supports R. Yochanan.
2. Eating a scrambled egg without salt;
3. Frequent consumption of olive oil;
4. Frequently drinking wine and smelling spices;
5. Drinking water left over from kneading a dough;
i. Some say, also sticking one's finger in salt
and using that finger to eat.
1. (R. Yochanan): Just as eating olives makes a person
forget the Torah he knew for 70 years, olive oil
restores the Torah he knew for 70 years.
(j) (Beraisa): Frequently drinking wine and smelling spices.
(k) This supports Rava.
1. (Rava): Wine and fragrances sharpen a person's mind.
(l) (Beraisa - Some say): Also sticking one's finger in salt
(and using that finger to eat).
(m) (Reish Lakish): This is when he eats with that one
(n) Tana'im argue about this.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Eating with one finger
(helps restore learning), not with two;
(o) Ten things cause difficulty in learning:
2. R. Yosi says, with two fingers helps, not three.
i. A sign to remember the (proper number to use
according to the two) opinions - the ring
finger (one finger stands on one side of it,
two fingers stand (together) on the other
1. Passing under the reins of a camel, all the more so
under a camel itself;
2. Passing between two camels; passing between two
women; a woman that passes between two men (causes
difficulties for the men);
3. Passing where one can smell a carcass; passing under
a bridge which has not had water under it for 40
4. Eating bread that was not fully baked; eating the
froth that accumulates on the spoon used to stir
cooking meat; drinking from a stream that passes
through a cemetary;
5. Looking at the face of a corpse;
i. Some say, also reading what is written on a
(a) (Beraisa): When the Nasi enters, all rise; they do not
sit until he tells them.
(b) When the Av Beis Din enters, everyone stands in two
lines, on two sides; they do not sit until he sits.
(c) When a Chacham enters, each person stands (when the
Chacham enters his four Amos) and sits (when the Chacham
leaves his four Amos) until the Chacham sits in his
(d) The children of Chachamim and budding Chachamim - if the
Tzibur needs them, they may walk (amidst people even if
they appear to walk) on the people's heads;
1. If one left for a need, he may return to his place;
(e) The children of Chachamim that are leaders of the Tzibur
- if they understand what is taught, they sit in front,
with their backs to the Tzibur;
1. If they do not understand, they sit in front of
their fathers, facing the Tzibur.
(f) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok says, even in a banquet hall,
they sit by their fathers.
(g) (Beraisa): If one left for a need, he may return to his
1. (Rav Papa): That is only if he left to urinate; if
he left to relieve himself (move his bowels), he was
negligent (for not checking himself earlier if he
needs to go), he may not return to his place.
(h) Beraisa (R. Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok): Even in a banquet
hall, they sit by their fathers.
2. (Rav Yehudah): A person should relieve himself
morning and evening, so he will not have to distance
himself during the day (to find a suitable place).
i. Nowadays, people are weaker, even to relieve
oneself is not negligence, he may return.
(i) (Rava): If their fathers are not there, they do not sit
in a place of honor.
(j) (R. Yochanan): This Beraisa (about standing for the Nasi)
was taught in the days of R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
1. R. Shimon ben Gamliel was the Nasi, R. Meir was a
great Chacham, R. Noson was the Av Beis Din. When
any of them would enter, all would stand. R. Shimon
ben Gamliel felt that the Nasi should be
distinguished; he enacted the law of the Beraisa
(which gives the greatest honor to the Nasi, then to
the Av Beis Din, then to a Chacham).
(k) R. Meir and R. Noson each had a dream in which he was
shown that he should appease R. Shimon.
2. R. Meir and R. Noson were not present when the
enactment was made. When they learned of it, R. Meir
suggested to R. Noson that they ask R. Shimon ben
Gamliel to teach Ukztim (a tractate R. Shimon did
i. This would be grounds to depose him; R. Noson
would become Nasi, R. Meir would become Av Beis
3. R. Yakov ben Kodshi heard this; he was concerned
that R. Shimon would be shamed. He hinted to him
that he should learn Ukztim. R. Shimon did so, and
was able to teach it when R. Meir asked.
4. R. Shimon expelled R. Meir and R. Noson from the
Beis Medrash. Questions which could not be answered
in the Beis Medrash were sent outside to them.
5. R. Yosi: We should be in the place of Torah -
outside with them!
6. R. Shimon: They may re-enter the Beis Medrash, but
they will be fined - their teachings will not be
said in their own names.
i. R. Meir's teachings (from then on) were
recorded as "Others say"; R. Noson's teachings
were recorded as "Some say".
1. R. Noson did so; R. Meir did not - "We do not change
anything based on dreams".
2. R. Shimon rebuked R. Noson for trying to become