POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Horayos 12
HORAYOS 12-14 - One week of study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita
Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok
Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly
in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His
Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.
1) ANOINTING WITH THE OIL
(a) Question: How was Yeho'achaz anointed with Shemen
ha'Mishchah- it was hidden before he reigned!
2) RELYING ON SIGNS
1. (Beraisa): The following were hidden with the Aron -
Shemen ha'Mishchah, the flask of Man, Aharon's
staff, and the chest that the Plishtim sent as a
gift to Yisrael - "...in the chest by (the Aron's)
(b) Answer (Rav Papa): He was anointed with pure Afarsimon
oil (not Shemen ha'Mishchah).
2. Question: Who hid the Aron?
3. Answer: Yoshiyahu Melech Yehudah hid it, because it
says "Hash-m will take you and your king into
4. He commanded to hide them - "Tenu Es Aron ha'Kodesh
(in the Beis ha'Mikdash" (implying that it was
i. (R. Elazar): We learn Gezeros Shavos
"Sham-Sham", "Mishmeres-Mishmeres", and
"Doros-Doros" (teaching that also the flask of
Man, Shemen ha'Mishchah, and Aharon's staff
were also hidden).
(c) (Beraisa): We anoint kings like a crown, and Kohanim like
(d) Question: What does it mean 'like Chai'?
(e) Answer (Ran Manshiya bar Gada): Like the Greek letter
'Chai' (like an English 'X').
(f) Beraisa #1: First they pour oil on his (the Kohen's)
head, then they apply some (drawing a line) between his
(g) (Beraisa #2): First they put between his eyebrows, then
they pour oil on his head.
(h) The Tana'im argue whether the anointing is primary, or
1. The opinion (Tana #1) that pouring is primary learns
from "And he poured Shemen ha'Mishchah on Aharon's
head and anointed him";
(i) (Beraisa): "Like the good oil...on the beard, the beard
of Aharon" - there were two drops of oil hanging on his
2. The opinion that anointing is primary learns from
the Klei Shares (they were anointed, Shemen
ha'Mishchah was not poured on them,).
3. Question: Regarding Aharon, it says "(Moshe)
poured", then it says "he anointed him" (when we do
both, pouring comes first)!
4. Answer: No - the verse teaches, the whole purpose of
pouring was to anoint him.
(j) (Rav Papa): When he would talk (Rashi; Tosfos ha'Rosh -
trim his beard), these drops would rise to the roots of
1. Moshe was concerned that he transgressed Me'ilah by
using two drops more than needed (Rashi, Kerisus 5B)
- a voice from Heaven proclaimed "Like the good
oil...like the dew of Chermon";
i. Just as there is no Me'ilah in the dew of
Chermon (the dew descends *from* Chermon to
Tziyon), also in the Shemen ha'Mishchah in
2. Aharon was still concerned that he transgressed
Me'ilah (perhaps the oil went where it was not
needed, and I benefited from it) - a voice from
Heaven proclaimed "How good and how pleasant,
brothers dwelling together";
i. Just as Moshe did not transgress, also Aharon.
(a) (Beraisa): We only anoint kings by a spring, (as a sign
that) their kingship should last - "Take him down to
3) THE DIFFERENT KOHANIM GEDOLIM
(b) (R. Ami): If one wants to know if he will survive the
coming year, he should hang a lamp during the 10 days
between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur in a house in which
wind does not blow - if all the oil burns, this shows
that he will live.
(c) If one wants to start a business venture, and wants to
know if it will succeed, he should raise a chicken - if
it grows fat, he will succeed.
(d) If one wants to go on a trip, and wants to know if he
will return, he should stand in a dark house - if he sees
a shadow of his shadow, he will return.
(e) Rejection: He should not do this - perhaps he will not
see it, and he will worry, and this will cause misfortune
to come upon him.
(f) (Abaye): Since we learn that omens are significant, a
person should eat on Rosh Hashanah gourds, fenugreek
(Rashi - clover) leeks, beets and dates (these grow
quickly or are sweet).
(g) Rav Mesharshiya (to his sons): When you go to learn from
your Rebbe'im, first learn the text (by heart); when he
teaches, look at his mouth - "Your eyes will see your
1. You should learn by a river, so your teachings will
endure as a river;
(h) "My horn is exalted in my G-d" - my horn is exalted, not
2. It is better to dwell in a wasteheap in Masa Machsya
(a city of Chachamim) than a palace in Pumbadisa;
3. It is better to eat rotting fish of Masa Machsya
than Kutach (a dish made with bread and milk) of
1. David and Shlomo were anointed with a horn - their
2. Sha'ul and Yehu were anointed with a flask - their
kingships did not last.
(a) (Mishnah): A Kohen anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah...
(b) (Beraisa): "Mashi'ach" - one might have thought, this
refers to the king - "Kohen" teaches, this is not so.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps even Merubah Begadim (brings a
Par for Hora'ah)!
(c) Question: How could we think that it refers to the king,
he brings a Sa'ir!
2. Rejection: "Mashi'ach".
3. Suggestion: Perhaps this includes Mashu'ach
Milchamah (the Kohen who speaks to the soldiers)!
4. Rejection: "The Mashi'ach" - the one that has no
Mashu'ach above him.
5. Question: How does the verse teach this?
6. Answer: This is like Rava taught - "(Gid ha'Nasheh
of) *the* thigh" - the special thigh (the right
i. Here also - "*The* Mashu'ach" - the most
(d) Answer: One might have thought, if he sinned b'Shogeg, he
brings a Sa'ir; if he sinned through Hora'ah, he brings a
1. The verse teaches that this is not so.
(e) (Mishnah): The only difference between a Mashu'ach...
(f) The Mishnah is not like R. Meir.
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): A Merubah Begadim brings a Par
(g) Question: But the end of the Mishnah is like R. Meir!
2. Chachamim argued with R. Meir.
3. Question: What is R. Meir's reason?
4. Answer (Beraisa): If it said "Mashu'ach", one might
have thought that only a Mashu'ach brings a Par -
"Ha'Mashu'ach" teaches, also Merubah Begadim.
1. (End of the Mishnah): The only differences between
the serving Kohen Gadol and Kohen she'Avar are that
the former pays for the Par of Yom Kipur and Asiris
2. This is like R. Meir!
4) "MASHU'ACH MILCHAMAH"
3. (Beraisa - R. Meir): If the Kohen Gadol was
temporarily disqualified and another was appointed,
the first resumes serving (when he becomes fit
again); all laws of a Kohen Gadol (permanently)
apply to the second;
(h) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): Yes!
4. R. Yosi says, the first one resumes serving; the
second cannot serve as a Kohen Gadol nor as a
5. R. Yosi: A case occurred, the Kohen Gadol became
disqualified; another was appointed. Chachamim ruled
that the first resumes serving, but the second
cannot serve, not as a Kohen Gadol nor as a regular
i. He cannot serve as a Kohen Gadol, for this will
6. Summation of question: Did Chachamim teach the
beginning of the Mishnah, and R. Meir taught the
ii. He cannot serve as a regular Kohen, for we
ascend in Kedushah, we do not descend.
(i) Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): Rebbi taught the Mishnah.
Regarding the first law, he holds like Chachamim;
regarding the second, he holds like R. Meir.
(j) Answer #3 (Rava): R. Shimon taught the Mishnah; he agrees
with R. Meir about one law, and argues with him about the
other (we know this from the following Beraisa):
1. (Beraisa): The following apply to a Kohen Gadol, not
to a regular Kohen:
(k) Question: How do we know that this Beraisa is like R.
i. He brings a Par for a Chatas, he pays for the
Par of Yom Kipur and Asiris ha'Efah;
2. All these apply to Merubah Begadim, except for
bringing a Par for a Chatas.
ii. He does not grow his hair long nor tear his
clothes in the usual way when a relative dies -
he tears at the bottom, others tear above.
iii. He may not become Tamei to bury a relative;
iv. He is commanded to marry a virgin, he is
forbidden to marry a widow;
v. When he dies, Shogeg murderers leave Arei
vi. He can serve in the Mikdash during Aninus (on
the day that a relative died), but he may not
eat Kodshim nor receive a portion of Kodshim
when he is an Onen (even though he will be
permitted to eat at night);
vii. (When not an Onen) he has first rights to offer
Korbanos, and to receive a share of Kodshim;
viii.He wears eight garments when he serves;
ix. He may do the Avodah of Yom Kipur;
x. He is exempt if he enters the Mikdash or eats
Kodshim when he is Tamei.
3. All of these laws apply to Kohen she'Avar, except
for paying for the Par of Yom Kipur and Asiris
4. None of these laws apply to Machu'ach Milchamah,
except for the five laws in the Parshah of the Kohen
i. He does not grow his hair long nor tear his
clothes (above) when a relative dies;
ii. He may not become Tamei for a relative;
iii. He is commanded to marry a virgin, he is
forbidden to marry a widow;
iv. R. Yehudah says, when he dies, the Shogeg
murderers leave the Arei Miklat;
v. Chachamim say, they do not leave.
(l) Answer (Rav Papa): We know that R. Shimon exempts a Kohen
Gadol for Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim.
(a) (Beraisa): None of these laws apply to Machu'ach
Milchamah, except for the five things in the Parshah of
the Kohen Gadol:
5) HOW A KOHEN GADOL TEARS HIS CLOTHES
1. He does not grow his hair long nor tear his clothes
(above) when a relative dies;
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
2. He may not become Tamei for a relative;
3. He is commanded to marry a virgin, he is forbidden
to marry a widow;
4. R. Yehudah says, when he dies, the Shogeg murderers
leave the Arei Miklat;
5. Chachamim say, they do not leave.
(c) (Beraisa): "The Kohen that is greater than his brothers"
- this is the Kohen Gadol;
1. "That Shemen ha'Mishchah was poured on his head" -
this is Machu'ach Milchamah;
(d) Regarding all of these it says "He will not grow his hair
long, he will not tear his clothes. He will not approach
2. "And he qualified himself (by bringing Asiris
ha'Eifah) to wear the clothing" - this is Merubah
(e) Suggestion: Perhaps any of these Kohanim Gedolim may
serve when he is an Onen!
(f) Rejection: "(He will not leave the Mikdash, and will not
profane)...for the crown of Shemen Mishchas Elokav is *on
him*" - not on another (anointed Kohen, i.e. the
(g) Suggestion: Since the law of Machu'ach Milchamah is
different regarding Aninus, perhaps he need not marry a
(h) Rejection: "*And* he (will marry a virgin)" (this
includes Machu'ach Milchamah).
(i) Tana'im argue about this.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): "He will marry a woman in
her virginity" - because the law of Machu'ach
Milchamah is different regarding Aninus, the Torah
must teach that this also applies to him;
(j) Question (Rava and Rav Papa): If a Kohen Gadol became a
Metzora, may he marry a widow?
2. R. Akiva says, if a Kohen Gadol became Tamei, he is
still commanded to marry a virgin (because he may
serve again after becoming Tahor);
i. One might have thought that if he became
blemished, he is not commanded - "*And* he"
teaches, this is not so.
1. Is he Nidcheh (Rashi - utterly withheld from ever
marrying a widow; Tosfos ha'Rosh - exempted from
those laws of a Kohen Gadol he cannot fulfill, but
still commanded about what he can fulfill)?
(k) Answer (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua - Beraisa): Not only
a Kohen Gadol disqualified because of Tum'ah (is still
commanded to marry a virgin), but even one disqualified
because of a blemish - "*And* he".
2. Or - is he Patur (Rashi - unable to marry a widow
while he is Kohen Gadol, but now this does not
apply; Tosfos ha'Rosh - totally exempted from all
laws of a Kohen Gadol)?
3. Rav Nachman was unable to answer the question.
(l) Rav Papa was so happy with the answer, he kissed Rav Huna
and was Mekadesh his daughter to him.
(a) (Mishnah): A Kohen Gadol tears his clothes from below; a
commoner tears from above.
6) WHAT IS MORE FREQUENT AND MORE KODESH
(b) A Kohen Gadol can serve in the Mikdash when he is an
Onen, but he may not eat Kodshim; a regular Kohen may not
serve nor eat when he is an Onen.
(c) (Gemara - Rav): 'Below' and 'above' are understood
literally, at the bottom or top of his garment.
(d) (Shmuel): 'Below' and 'above' mean, above and below the
collar, by the neck.
(e) Question (Beraisa): For any (other) relative that dies, a
person may tear the neckline of his garment or below it;
for a parent, he must tear the neckline.
1. Since one fulfills the Mitzvah by tearing below the
neckline, how can Shmuel permit a Kohen Gadol to do
this - "He will not tear his clothes"!
(f) Answer: Shmuel holds like R. Yehudah, who says that one
who does not tear the neckline has not done the Mitzvah.
(g) Question: But R. Yehudah holds that a Kohen Gadol does
not tear at all!
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Had it said "He will not
Yifra (expose) a head, he will not tear a garment",
one might have thought, this means he will not
expose the head or tear the garment of a Sotah;
(h) Answer: Shmuel holds as R. Yehudah regarding what is
considered tearing; he argues whether or not a Kohen
i. Rather, it says "He will not Yifra (let grow
the hair of) *his* head, he will not tear *his*
garments" - he does not let his hair grow nor
tear his garments at all;
2. R. Yishmael says, he does not tear his garments like
others - he tears below, commoners tear above.
(a) (Mishnah): Whatever is more frequent than something else,
goes first; whatever is more Kadosh than something else,
1. If the Par of the Kohen Gadol and the Par of the
Tzibur (for sins through Hora'ah) are waiting to be
offered, the Kohen Gadol offers his Par completely
before that of the Tzibur.
(b) (Gemara) Question: How do we know (the first clause)?
(c) Answer (Abaye): "Aside from the morning Olah, *l'Olas
ha'Tamid*" - these words are extra!
1. They teach that whatever is Tamid (more frequent)
(d) (Mishnah): Whatever is more Kadosh than something else,
(e) Question: How do we know this?
(f) Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): "You will Mekadesh him
(a Kohen)" - in every matter of Kedushah, to read the
Torah first, to bless (after eating) first, to take a
nice portion first.