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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Gitin 60

GITIN 59 & 60 - Sponsored by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel and his wife, Jeri Turkel. May Hashem bless them with many years of Simcha, health and fulfillment, and may they see all of their children and grandchildren follow them in the ways of Torah and Yir'as Shamayim!


(a) Answer (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): The next priorities to read are: Chachamim Question (People of Galil): Who reads after the Kohen and Levi?
(b) appointed over the congregation; Chachamim fitting to be appointed; children of the appointed Chachamim; the heads of the congregation; everyone else.
(c) Question (People of Galil): May we read in synagogue from a scroll which only contains 1 of the 5 books of the Torah?
(d) Answer #1 (Rabanan): We may learn from the following.
1. (R. Yochanan): A Sefer Torah missing a column - we may not read from it in synagogue.
(e) Rejection: That is no proof - there, the Sefer is deficient; here, the Sefer (of 1 book) is complete!
(f) Answer #2 (Rabah and Rav Yosef): We may not read - it is dishonorable to the congregation.
(g) (Rabah and Rav Yosef): We may not read from a scroll containing (only) the portions of the prophets read as the Haftorah, for it is forbidden to write such a Sefer.
1. (Mar bar Rav Ashi): One may not even move it on Shabbos, for it is not fitting to be read from!
(h) Rejection: The law is not as these opinions; rather, we may move and read from such a Sefer (as we see from the following).
1. R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish read from a Sefer of Agadta on Shabbos.
2. Question: But it is forbidden to write the oral Law!
3. Answer: Since there was no alternative (the teachings were in danger of being forgotten), they could be written - "At a time to act for Hash-m, they annulled Your Torah".
4. Similarly, we may write and use a Sefer of the Haftorah portions (since congregations cannot afford complete Seforim of the prophets).
(a) Question (Abaye): May one write a portion (less than 1 book) of the Torah, to teach a child?
1. This question may be asked according to the opinion that the Torah was given portion by portion, and also according to the opinion that the Torah was given complete.
2. According to the opinion that the Torah was given portion by portion - we should likewise be allowed to write 1 portion;
i. Or perhaps, once the Torah was finalized, it can no longer be written piecemeal!
3. According to the opinion that the Torah was given complete - likewise, we may only write complete Seforim;
i. Or perhaps, since there is no alternative (for people that cannot write a full Sefer), a single portion may be written.
(b) Answer #1 (Rabah): According to both opinions, it may not be written.
1. Question (Mishnah): Queen Hilni made a gold tablet on which the portion of Sotah was written (for the Kohanim to copy from).
2. Answer (Reish Lakish): Only the first letter of each word was written.
3. Question (Beraisa): The Kohen (that is copying the portion) looks at the tablet and writes what is written in the tablet.
4. Answer: It means, he writes according to what is written in the tablet.
5. Question (Beraisa): It is written in the tablet "If a man lied (with you)...if a man did not lie".
6. Answer: Only the first word of each verse is properly written in the tablet; by the other words, only the initial letters are written.
(c) Answer #2: Tana'im argue whether a portion of the Torah may be written to teach a child.
1. (Beraisa): One may not write a portion of the Torah, to teach a child;
2. R. Yehudah says, One may write from "In the beginning" until the generation of the flood; one may write from the beginning of Sefer Vayikra until "On the eighth day".
(d) (R. Yochanan): The Torah was given portion by portion - "In a scroll of a Sefer it is written about me".
(e) (Reish Lakish): The Torah was given complete - "Take this Sefer Torah".
1. Question: How does R. Yochanan explain this verse?
2. Answer: It was only said after the Torah was completed.
3. Question: How does Reish Lakish explain the verse R. Yochanan learned from?
4. Answer #1: The entire Torah is also called a scroll - "I see a scroll flying".
5. Answer #2: Only 8 portions, which were taught on the day the Mishkan was inaugurated, were written separately.
6. (R. Levi): The following 8 portions were written on the day the Mishkan was inaugurated:
i. The special prohibitions of Kohanim;
ii. The Parsha of the Levi'im (that they will assist the Kohanim);
iii. That people Tamei on Pesach bring the Pesach sacrifice on Pesach Sheni (Rashi; Tosfos - that Tamei people may not touch Kodshim);
iv. The expulsion of Tamei people from the camps;
v. That only the Kohen Gadol may enter the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim, during the Yom Kipur service.

vi. The prohibition for a Kohen to serves while drunk;
vii. The lighting of the Menorah;
viii.The red heifer.
(f) (R. Elazar): The majority of the Torah is written, the minority is oral - "I will write for (Yisrael) most of My Torah".
(g) (R. Yochanan): The majority of the Torah is oral, the minority is written - "Al Pi (according to - literally, by the mouth) these words" (the covenant was made).
1. Question: How does R. Yochanan explain R. Elazar's verse?
2. Answer: Hash-m asks in astonishment - "Should I write for him most of My Torah - he considers it foreign!"
3. Question: How does R. Elazar explain the verse R. Yochanan learned from?
4. Answer: The covenant was on the oral Torah, for it is harder to learn.
(h) Question (R. Yehudah bar Nachmani): One verse says "Write these words"; another says "Al Pi these words" (they should be oral)!
(i) Answer (R. Yehudah bar Nachmani): You may not say written Torah by heart; you may not recite oral Torah by reading it (Rashi's text - you may not write oral Torah).
(j) (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "These" - Words of Torah you may write, but you may not write laws.
(k) (R. Yochanan): Hash-m only made a covenant with Yisrael on account of the oral Torah - "Al Pi these words I made a covenant with you and with Yisrael".
(a) (Mishnah): The Eiruv is placed in the same house (as it used to be) for the sake of Shalom.
(b) Question: Why must this be done to ensure Shalom?
1. Suggestion: Because of the honor of the original house.
2. Rejection: The shofar (sounded on Erev Shabbos; some say, a collection box for money to support the Yeshivah) of Pumbadisa was originally in Rav Yehudah's home; it later passed to that of Rabah, then Rav Yosef, then Abaye, then Rava!
(c) Answer: Rather, so people will not see it missing from its usual place, and suspect that people carrying in the courtyard are transgressing.
(d) (Mishnah): The pit closest to the irrigation channel takes water first...
(e) (Rav): The people downstream on a river drink from it first;
(f) (Shmuel): The people upstream drink first.
1. All agree that anyone may take whenever he wants as the river flows; they argue regarding damming up the river to irrigate one's fields.
2. Shmuel says that the upstream people have priority, for the water comes to them first.
3. Rav says that the downstream people have priority - they may claim, the river should be allowed to flow (and no one cares what happens further downstream).
(g) Question (against Rav - Mishnah): The pit closest to the irrigation channel takes water first for the sake of Shalom.
(h) Answer (Shmuel, on behalf of Rav): The case is, the channel passes over the pit.
(i) Question: If so, it is obvious that they take first!
(j) Answer: One might have thought, the others can tell him to cover his pit and draw with a bucket (as they do) - we hear, they cannot.
(k) (Rav Huna bar Tachlifa): Since the law was not decided as either opinion, the strongest party wins.
(l) Rav Simi bar Ashi told Abaye that he would irrigate his fields for him, in order that Abaye would have time to learn with him.
1. Rav Simi told the upstream people that the law is that the people downstream drink first; he told the downstream people that the upstream people drink first. He dammed the river and irrigated Abaye's fields.
2. Abaye was upset; he did not eat from the fruit of the fields that year.
(m) There were certain people that used to detour a river so it would irrigate their fields. People upstream complained that this caused flooding upstream.
1. Abaye: The upstream people should dig to deepen the river to avoid the flooding.
2. The upstream people: If we do so, when the river is low, it will not irrigate our fields!
3. Abaye: If so, the downstream people may not reroute the river (Rashi; R. Chananel - the upstream people cannot protest).
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