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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Gitin 31

GITIN 31 - sponsored by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, England, a living demonstration of love for and adoration of the Torah.


(a) (Mishnah): Reuven designated fruit or money, intending that he can declare some of this fruit (or money) to be Terumah or Ma'aser (or the redemption of Ma'aser Sheni) when he wants. He may do this - he may assume that the fruit or money is intact.
1. R. Elazar says, if he finds that the fruit or money was lost, he must be concerned for 24 hours (if he relied on it to tithe or redeem produce or Ma'aser Sheni, perhaps the fruit or money was already lost, and the tithing or redemption was invalid).
2. R. Yehudah says, we must check wine (from which we want to declare tithes) at 3 times to ensure that it has not spoiled: when the east wind blows after Sukos; when unripe grapes appear on the vines; when unripe grapes start filling up with liquid.
(b) (Gemara): Question: Which 24 hours (are we concerned for)?
(c) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): The last 24 hours before checking and finding that the fruit or money was lost.
(d) Answer #2 (R. Elazar ben Antigonus): The 24 hours after designating the fruit or money (we assume it was intact; after that, we are in doubt).

(e) (Mishnah): R. Elazar says, if he finds that the fruit or money was lost, he must be concerned for 24 hours.
1. This fits the opinion that we are concerned for the last 24 hours.
2. Question: According to R. Elazar ben Antigonus, it should say we are concerned until 24 hours after designation!
i. This is left difficult.
(f) (Mishnah): This is the opinion of R. Elazar (ben Shamua).
(g) (R. Elazar (ben Pedas)): Chachamim argue on R. Elazar.
1. (Mishnah): A Mikvah was measured and found to be lacking. Any foods that came in contact with people or Tamei vessels that immersed in the Mikvah, are retroactively Tamei.
i. This applies whether in a public or private domain.
(h) Question: This is clear from the Mishnah that Chachamim argue - why did R. Elazar have to teach this?
(i) Answer: One might have thought, Chachamim only meant that the foods are retroactively Tamei for 24 hours - we hear, this is not so.
(j) (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): At 3 times we check...
(k) (Beraisa): When the east wind blows after the autumn equinox (this is what the Mishnah means by 'Sukos').
(l) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We sell grain at 3 times - before seeding, at the time of seeding, and in the 2 weeks before Pesach;
1. We sell wine at 3 times - in the 2 weeks before Pesach, in the 2 weeks before Shavu'os, in the 2 weeks before Sukos.
2. We sell oil after Shavu'os.
(m) Question: To what law is this relevant?
(n) Answer (Rava): Partnerships (when 1 partner may sell, even if the other does not want to sell).
(o) Question: After the last time, when are they sold?
(p) Answer (Rava): At any time.
(a) Question: "An east wind Charishis" - what does "Charishis" mean?
(b) Answer (Rav Yehudah): When the east wind blows, it makes furrows in the water (from the language Charishah, plowing).
(c) Objection (Rava): But this does not at all explain "The sun shone intensely on Yonah's head and he grew faint"!
(d) Answer #2 (Rava): When the east wind blows, it silences all the other winds (negates their cooling effects, from the language Hecherish, to be silent).
1. Support (Rav Tachlifa bar Rav Chisda): "Your clothing is warm, when the land is silent from the south" - your clothing is warm when the south wind has been silenced.
i. The east wind silences the other winds.
(e) Rav Huna and Rav Chisda were sitting; Geneiva passed by. One of them suggested rising to honor him, for he is learned.
1. The other: Should we stand up for one who instigates arguments?!
(f) (Geneiva): Four winds blow every day; the north wind accompanies all of them - if not for the north wind, the world could not endure at all.
1. The east wind is the harshest - if not for a special angel that withholds it, it would destroy the world.
(g) (Rav): The east wind can make a woman miscarry.
(h) (Shmuel): It even causes pearls in the sea to rot.
(i) (R. Yochanan): It even causes semen in the womb to spoil.
(j) (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): All 3 opinions were learned from this verse - "He makes evil sprout; an east wind of Hash-m arises from the wilderness and dries up the source..."
1. "It dries up the source" - this is the womb;
2. "It destroys his spring" - this is semen in the womb;
3. "It despoils a storehouse of desired vessels" - these are pearls of the sea.
(k) Question: "He makes evil Yafri (sprout)" - what does this mean?
(l) Answer #1 (Rava): Even the handle of a shovel Rafya (softens) [in the east wind].
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