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Gitin 31

GITIN 31 - sponsored by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, England, a living demonstration of love for and adoration of the Torah.

1a) [line 3] B'OMED - by estimation
b) [line 3] B'MACHSHAVAH - (a) Terumah takes effect even if it is *not separated physically* from the rest of the produce (e.g. if he labels as Terumah either a specific part, or a portion that will be clarified later (through Bereirah), but leaves it together with the rest of the produce) (RASHI to Bechoros 59a); (b) Tosfos to Beitzah 13b DH k'Shem adds that Terumah may be pronounced in one's mind (*rather than verbally*) (see TOSFOS to Bechoros ibid. DH b'Machshavah)

2) [line 7] LIHEYOS MAFRISH ALEIHEN TERUMAH U'MA'ASROS - with the intent that he will separate from this produce Terumos and Ma'asros [for other produce]

3) [line 9] MA'ASER SHENI
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

4) [line 11] ME'ES L'ES - for a 24-hour period
5) [line 12] BI'SHELOSHAH PERAKIM - at three times during the year, as the Mishnah proceeds to enumerate

6a) [line 12] B'KIDUM - when the east wind begins to blow (Kedem = east)
b) [line 12] SHEL MOTZA'EI HE'CHAG - after the end of the [Sukos] holiday (see entry #15, below)

7) [line 13] UV'HOTZA'AS SEMADAR - when the grapevines have flowered and grapes in their budding stage appear

8) [line 13] UVI'SHE'AS KENISAS MAYIM BA'BOSER - (a) when liquid begins to enter the unripe grapes; (b) when unripe grapes are crushed and water is added to them to produce a vinegar-based dip

9) [line 15] ME'ES L'ES SHEL BEDIKAH - for a [retroactive] 24-hour period from the time that the produce was checked [and found to have spoiled]


10) [line 1] ME'ES L'ES SHEL HANACHAH - for a 24-hour period [onward] from the time that the produce was set aside

11) [line 7] MIKVAH SHE'NIMDAD V'NIMTZAH CHASER - a Mikvah that was measured and found to be lacking [the required minimum amount of 40 Se'in of non-drawn water] (MIKVA'OS)

(a) Rainwater (Notfin) is Metaher (purifies) if it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (down a slope, for example,) it cannot be Metaher.
(b) Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugim of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.
12) [line 7] KOL TAHAROS SHE'NA'ASU AL GABAV - all items of Taharah (ritual purity), such as Terumah and the like, that were touched by people or utensils that relied on this Mikvah to become Tehorim

13) [line 8] L'MAFRE'A - retroactively

(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.
(b) This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

15) [line 12] TEKUFAH - the season of Tishrei (fall) of the solar cycle (i.e. if the day after Sukos falls in the season of Tishrei, and not in the season of Tamuz (summer))

16) [line 13] LIFNEI HA'ZERA - before the planting season
17) [line 14] SHE'AS HA'ZERA - *at the end* of the planting season (TOSFOS)
18) [line 14] PEROS HA'PESACH - *half* (Peras = half) of the period before Pesach during which the laws of Pesach are discussed, i.e. fifteen days before Pesach

19) [line 16] ATZERES - Shavu'os
20) [line 16] CHAG - Sukos
21) [line 19] "VA'YEHI KI'ZRO'ACH HA'SHEMESH, VA'YEMAN ELOKIM RU'ACH KADIM CHARISHIS..." - "And it came to pass, when the sun rose, that HaSh-m appointed a hot east wind; [and the sun beat down upon the head of Yonah, so that he fainted; he wished to die, and said, 'It is better for me to die than to live.']" (Yonah 4:8)

22) [line 21] B'SHA'AH SHE'MENASHEVES - at the time that it blows
23) [line 21] TELAMIM - (lit. furrows) large waves ("Charishis" is related to the word "Charishah" = plowing)

24) [line 23] "...VA'TACH HA'SHEMESH AL ROSH YONAH VA'YIS'ALAF... - "...and the sun beat down upon the head of Yonah, so that he fainted..." (Yonah 4:8)

25) [line 25] "ASHER BEGADECHA CHAMIM B'HASHKIT ERETZ MI'DAROM?" - "Or why your garments are warm, when the earth is quiet because of the south wind?" (Iyov 37:17)

26) [line 30] CHALIF V'AZIL GENEIVA ALAIHU - Geneiva was passing before them
27) [line 31] BAR ORYAN - a Torah scholar
28) [line 32] MEKAMEI PALGA'AH NEIKUM? - Should we stand for a divisive person? (Source: above, Daf 7a)

29) [line 33] AD'HACHI - meanwhile
30) [line 39] BEN NETZ - (lit. the son of a hawk) the name of an Angel (RASHI)

31) [line 40] "HAMI'BINASCHA YA'AVER NETZ; YIFROS KENAFAV L'SEIMAN?" - "Does the hawk fly by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?" (Iyov 39:26)

32) [line 43] GUHARKA D'DAHAVA - a golden carriage used by distinguished people

33) [line 43] PARIS ALEI SARBELA D'CHARTI - and he was covered with a pressed green cloak

34) [line 45] BEI REISH GALUSA - the household of the Exilarch, the temporal leader of the Jews in Babylon

35) [line 48] GALI L'DAR'EI - he uncovered his arm
36) [line 48] SHADYA NASHIV - the south wind (that is called "Shadya" -- ARUCH, cited by TOSFOS) is blowing

37) [line 53] "KI HU BEIN ACHIM YAFRI; YAVO KADIM RU'ACH HASH-M MI'MIDBAR OLEH V'YEIVOSH MEKORO, [V'YECHERAV MA'YANO; HU YISHSEH OTZAR KOL KELI CHEMDAH.]" - "Though he may flourish like the reed grass, an east wind shall come, the wind of HaSh-m shall come up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, [and his fountain shall be dried up; it shall strip his treasure of all precious articles.]" (Hoshea 13:15)

38) [line 55] MEKORAH SHEL ISHAH - the womb of a woman
39) [last line] ADI SURA'AH HU - *this* is [a homiletic exegesis of the students of the Yeshiva at] Sura (who were very exacting in their teachings of the verses)

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