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Gitin 25

GITIN 24 & 25 - have been anonymously dedicated by a very special Marbitz Torah and student of the Daf from Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.

1) [line 1] ANPILYA - (a) (O.F. hoses) leather boots or moccasins (MEFARESH to Nedarim 55b); (b) (O.F. chalcon) woolen socks or slippers (RASHI; TOSFOS to Nedarim ibid.)

(a) When a person dies, his estate is divided up among his sons. The Amora'im argue whether the way the estate is ultimately divided can retroactively determine what each brother inherited at the time of the father's death, or not. Rebbi Yochanan is of the opinion that even when the brothers later divide the estate, we *cannot determine retroactively* that the land each brother now has is the same land he inherited at the time of death. Rather, we say that by dividing up the property, the brothers agree to "trade" their true portions, wherever they are, with each other for portions of equal value elsewhere.
(b) There is a Halachic difference between whether the inheritance is retroactive or not. If the inheritance is retroactive, no purchase or trading has occurred. Therefore, in the year of the Yovel they need not return the land to each other and re-divide the estate. However, if the inheritance is not retroactive and a trade *has* occurred, when Yovel arrives the brothers must return to each other their portions, after which they re-divide the estate, as if they had purchased their shares from each other.

(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." (Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety.
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places -- Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).
(d) The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

4) [line 26] AMNINHU - he (the father) appointed them (all of his children)

5) [line 28] MOSHCHIN YEDEIHEN - (lit. withdrawing their hands) Withdrawing the designation of the people who will eat the Korban Pesach
(a) A lamb or goat that is slaughtered as a Korban Pesach may only be eaten by individuals who are designated beforehand to eat from it. This is learned from the verse, "v'Im Yim'at ha'Bayis mi'Heyos mi'Seh v'Lakach Hu u'Shecheno ha'Karov El Beiso b'Michsas Nefashos; Ish Lefi Ochlo Tachosu Al ha'Seh." - "If the household is too small for a lamb, then he and a close neighbor can obtain a lamb together, as long as it is for specifically designated individuals. Individuals shall be designated for a lamb according to how much each one will eat." (Shemos 12:4).
(b) People may be designated for or may withdraw their share from a Korban Pesach as long as it has not been slaughtered.

6) [line 30] SHEFALIM - lax

7) [line 43] KUSIM
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.) Our Gemara is referring to a case before they lost their status of full-fledged Jews.

(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called *Ma'aser Ani* and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.


9) [line 1] MEICHAL V'SHOSEH - (a) he redeems ("Meichal", short for "Mechalel") the Ma'aser Sheni and then he may drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin ("Meichal," short for "Maschil") to drink the wine (RABEINU GERSHOM to Me'ilah 22a)

10) [line 3] MAH HI B'OSAN HA'YAMIM? - What is her status on those days? If a person makes a stipulation when he divorces his wife stating, "This is your Get *from today* if I die from my current illness," if he dies from that illness, his wife is divorced retroactively from the day that he gave her the Get (Mishnah Daf 72a). Rebbi Yehudah rules (Mishnah Daf 73a) that until the husband dies, the woman is considered definitely married and we do not take into consideration the possibility that he will die (since she has a Chezkas Nesu'ah). Only after he dies is she considered to be divorced retroactively. (This follows the explanation of Rashi. Tosfos, however, explains that Rebbi Yehudah is discussing a situation in which the husband stipulated that his wife should be divorced retroactively from the moment before his death, should he die from that illness.)

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