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Gitin 16

GITIN 16 - dedicated by Mr. Avi Berger of Queens, N.Y. in memory of his parents, Pinchas ben Reb Avraham Yitzchak and Leah bas Michal Mordechai

1) [line 1] NITZOK - a column of liquid that is being poured from one utensil to another

2) [line 1] KATAFRAS - [water running down] a slope
3) [line 3] TOFE'ACH L'HATFI'ACH - moist to the extent that it makes anything that touches it also moist

4) [line 4] MIKVA'OS
(a) Rainwater (Notfin) is Metaher (purifies) if it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (down a slope, for example,) it cannot be Metaher.
(b) Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugim of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.

5) [line 6] MECHUVANOS - exactly

(a) Gud Achis (lit. extend or pull downward!) is a Halachic device usually used in creating Mechitzos (partitions -- for example, in order to enclose a Reshus ha'Yachid (Shabbos 101a) or to create a Sukah (RASHI to Sukah 19a)). Those who hold Gud Achis maintain that Mechitzos raised from the ground, if they enclose an area of four by four Tefachim, are considered to extend downward to the ground or the water below them, providing the necessary ten Tefachim for a Mechitzah of a Sukah or a Reshus ha'Yachid.
(b) Our Gemara uses the term with regard to joining bodies of water. The Gemara is discussing water that adheres to a person who has just immersed in a Mikvah that contained (before his immersion) exactly 40 Se'ah of water. The water is considered as if it is extended back into the Mikvah and connected to the rest of the water of the Mikvah to complete the necessary Shi'ur of 40 Se'ah.

(a) The Gemara (Shabbos 13b-17b) records that during the time of the Tana'im there was a period when the Rabanan instituted eighteen decrees which dealt mostly with Tum'ah and Taharah. The two cases of Tum'ah Kalah (less stringent Tum'ah) listed in our Gemara belong to these decrees.
(b) If one immerses in a Mikvah and then on that day submerges his head and most of his body in Mayim She'uvim (water that has been drawn; see Insights to Shabbos 14:2), he is Tamei. Similarly, a person who is Tahor, upon whom fall three Lugim of Mayim She'uvim, is Tamei (see Insights ibid.). The Gemara (Shabbos 13b) explains that the practice was that immediately after immersing in a Mikvah of stagnant cave-water, one would pour over himself drawn water in order to clean himself. The Rabanan, fearing that people may begin to think that the drawn water and not the Mikvah, is what makes a person Tahor, decreed that if one submerges himself into a pool of drawn water after immersing or pours drawn water over himself, he becomes Tamei.

8) [line 14] BA'AL KERI (TAKANAS EZRA)
(a) A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day, he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa -- the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim (TY #10) until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
(b) Ezra instituted that a Ba'al Keri may not recite verses or learn Torah before he immerses. The Gemara discusses whether Takanas Ezra was repealed or not (Berachos 22b-23b). The Takanah for a sick person was more lenient, only requiring him to pour over himself nine Kabin of water.


9a) [line 10] ASYA L'ICHLUFEI B'KIYIM SHETAROS D'ALMA B'ED ECHAD - [since there is only one witness who is testifying about the signing of the Get, the unlearned onlooker] may confuse this case with an ordinary case of Kiyum Shtaros, concluding (and broadcasting) that one witness is enough [to be Mekayem a Shtar]

b) [line 10] KIYUM SHTAROS
Mid'Oraisa, a Shtar (contract) or Get which was written legally and signed by witnesses is considered absolute proof. The Chachamim, out of fear of forgeries, required that every Shtar be validated ("Kiyum") in one of the following manners:

  1. The witnesses themselves attest to the validity of their signatures.
  2. Two other witnesses who recognize the signatures attest to their validity.
  3. The signatures are matched to those on a previously validated Shtar or Get.
10) [line 41] CHALASH - became sick
11) [line 41] UL L'GABEI RAV YEHUDAH V'RABAH L'SHIYULEI BEI - Rav Yehudah and Rabah came in to visit him

12) [last line] AD'HACHI - meanwhile

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