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1) [line 1] KEVINASI - (O.F. nosche) my brooch
3) [line 19] MEDINAS HA'YAM - a land overseas (i.e. a distant land)
5a) [line 38] KIYUM HA'GET (KIYUM)
6) [line 2] KIYUM SHETAROS D'ALMA - the validation of ordinary contracts
(lit. contracts of the world, i.e. other than Gitin)
7) [line 3] KA NAFIK NAKI RIV'A D'MAMONA A'PUMA D'CHAD SAHADA - [in a case of monetary Shtaros that are similar to this Get,] three quarters (lit. less a quarter) of the money would be extracted on the basis of one of the witnesses' testimony. (We would be relying on him totally to validate his own signature and partially on the other's signature. In the Get, we are relying on him totally for the first signature when he said "b'Fanai Nechtam Chetzyo" (which has the power of two witnesses according to the Takanas Chachamim), and partially on the other's signature when he verifies it along with another witness. Hence, three quarters of the testimony relies on him.)
8) [line 5] MASIK - concludes, finishes (i.e. had he finished saying b'Fanai Nichtav uv'Fanai Nechtam)
9) [line 11] MAS'HID - testifies
10a) [line 19] GIDUD CHAMISHAH - an embankment that is five Tefachim high
[whether it was the embankment of a ditch (RASHI) or the five-Tefachim-high
wall of a courtyard that was situated five Tefachim below its neighboring
courtyard (RASHI to Eruvin 93b)]
11a) [line 20] EIN MITZTAFRIN - they do not combine to provide the necessary ten Tefachim that is needed for the area inside of the ditch (or the lower courtyard) to be considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (see next entry) (RASHI; see TOSFOS, however, who argues, citing the Gemara in Eruvin 99b that rules that the depth of a pit and the height of its embankment *do* combine to produce Mechitzos of the required height)
b) [line 20] EIN MITZTARFIN (RESHUS HA'YACHID)
(a) RESHUS HA'RABIM (the public domain) includes 16-Amah-wide thoroughfares or streets that are open at both ends, and open plazas that can hold many people at the same time. (According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must use the area for it to be considered Reshus ha'Rabim, see Insights to Shabbos 6b.)12) [line 23] YADAYIM (NETILAS YADAYIM)
(a) Normally if Tum'ah touches part of a person's body, it make his entire body Tamei and he can only become Tahor by Tevilah (immersing) in a Mikvah. However the Chachamim instituted that in certain cases a person's hands can become Teme'os without the rest of his body becoming Tamei, and he is able to be Metaher his hands through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.
(b) Shlomo ha'Melech instituted (Eruvin 21b; Shabbos 15a) that if a person does not pay close attention to make sure that his hands did not touch what they were not supposed to, his hands are deemed to be Teme'os and he may not touch Kodshim until he washes them. The reason for the Gezeirah was "Yadayim Askaniyos Hen," which means that the hands are constantly "busy" and they touch things without intent. A person may have touched himself in a sweaty or otherwise unclean place, and touching Kodshim or Terumah in such a manner is a disgrace to their Kedushah and loathsome to those who must afterwards eat them (RASHI Shabbos 14a). The Takanah of Shlomo ha'Melech was to consider the hands a Shelishi (see Background to Sotah 27:11 for a discussion of the different levels Tum'ah) and to prohibit a person from eating Kodshim without Netilas Yadayim. Later, Beis Hilel and Beis Shamai decreed that the hands are *Sheniyos* and may not even touch *Terumah* before Netilas Yadayim (Shabbos 14a). This is one of the ordinances of the "18 Davar" (Shabbos 13b-17b). These two decrees are known as the Gezeiros of "Stam Yadayim," i.e. it is not known for certain that the person's hands touched anything specific that made them Tamei, but the Rabanan made them Tamei anyway.
(c) There are other situations in which a person's hands could become Tamei without the rest of his body becoming Tamei: 1. If a person's hands touch Sifrei Kodesh (Shabbos 14a; Tosfos ibid. 14b DH Keivan; 2. If a person's hands touch a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Mishnah Yadayim 3:1); 3. If a person's hands touch a person who can only make clothing, but not people, Tamei. (An example of a person who can only make clothing but not people Tamei, is one who is touching Ma'ayanos ha'Zav (see Background to Shekalim 21:33c), a Mishkav or Moshav (see Background to Nazir 64:4b:a-b), or one who is carrying a Neveilah (see Kelim 1).) (Mishnah Yadayim, ibid.); 4. If a person's hands enter a Bayis ha'Menuga, but his body does not enter it (ibid.).
(d) Although Yadayim that are Sheniyos cannot make Chulin Tamei, The Chachamim instituted that a person must wash his hands before eating bread that is Chulin. This is because of a "Serach Terumah" (in order to accustom those who eat Terumah to Netilas Yadayim -- RASHI to Chulin 106a) and also because of Nekiyus (cleanliess; see TOSFOS ibid. DH Mitzvah). In addition, Netilas Yadayim is necessary before eating other Chulin foods besides bread if the food is wet (Pesachim 115a -- because even Chulin food can become Tamei through a Sheni ,such as hands that are Tamei, because of the water on it).
(e) A person whose hands are Teme'os cannot touch Terumah or Kodshim, and cannot eat Chulin, until he is Metaher them either through Netilas Yadayim or Tevilas Yadayim.
1. Netilas Yadayim (Mishnah, Yadayim 1:1) involves pouring water on his hands from a utensil that contains at least a Revi'is of water. A person may be Metaher his hands by pouring less than a Revi'is of water on his hands from such a utensil if two conditions are met: (i) The utensil must have contained at least a Revi'is when the first person to use the water in this cup used some of it for Netilas Yadayim. (ii) When pouring less than a Revi'is on one's hands, one must rinse their entire hands *twice* each, and not just once each.13) [line 24] KA MASHU BEI TREI - two people wash
14) [line 25] REVI'IS - a quarter of a Log (1 Revi'is measures approximately 75, 86 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)
15) [line 27] HA'NOTEL YADO ACHAS B'NETILAH V'ACHAS B'SHETIFAH YADAV TEHOROS - (a) washing one hand by pouring over it a Revi'is of water from a cup and dipping the other hand into a river or Mikvah that has at least 40 Se'in of water makes the hands Tehoros (RASHI; the word "d'Tenan," however, should read "d'Tanya"); (b) according to the Girsa *NATAL YADO ACHAS MI'SHETIFAH ACHAS YADO TEHORAH* - washing one hand by pouring over it a quantity of water that would normally be poured in two portions makes that hand Tehorah (RABEINU TAM, cited by Tosfos; accordingly, there is no need to change the word "d'Tenan," since this is a Mishnah -- Yadayim 2:1)
16) [line 28] PALGA PALGA D'YADEI - one half of the hand and then the other half
17) [last line] IKA MASHKEH TOFE'ACH - there remains moisture [on the part of the hand that he washed first] from the liquid (the water) [of the first washing]