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Gitin 10

GITIN 9 & 10 - have been anonymously dedicated by a very special Marbitz Torah and student of the Daf from Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.

1) [line 1] SHEMOS MUVHAKIN - names that are well known [to be the names of Nochrim]

2) [line 1] CHAZARAH - to rescind [a Get or Shtar Shichrur] (the opinion of Rebbi Meir above, Daf 9b)

3) [line 3] KIDUSHIN - betrothal
The Torah commands that when a Jewish man intends to marry a woman, he must first be Mekadesh (betroth) her in front of witnesses, as the verse states, "Ki Yikach Ish Ishah" - "When a man takes a wife" (Devarim 22:13). He accomplishes Kidushin by means of Kesef, Shtar or Bi'ah (see Kidushin 2a). Marriage (Nisu'in) takes place when the husband takes his wife into his Reshus (usually defined as his home. Practically speaking, the custom today is that the groom's Reshus is the wedding canopy or a room where the couple can be alone after the wedding ceremony.) (RAMBAM Hilchos Ishus 1:1-3)

4) [line 4] SHELICHUS BE'AL KORCHAH - appointing a messenger [to divorce his wife or free his slave] against her or his will

5) [line 6] KUSI
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
(c) Even though the Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" -- Vayikra 19:14).
(d) One of the Halachos about which the Kusim were not careful was the requirement of Kidushin (betrothal) before marriage. Kidushin forms a bond of husband and wife that is only severed by a Get (bill of divorce), but Kusim would not give a Get after effecting Kidushin with a woman. It is possible that one Kusi effected Kidushin with a woman and another Kusi married her before she received a Get from her first husband, a situation that led Chazal to fear that many of their offspring might be Mamzerim (RASHI to Yevamos 37a).

6) [line 8] KEFAR OSNAI - a town at the foot of the mountains of the Shomron at the edge of the Yizre'el Valley, near Tel Megido. It was near the modern-day village (abandoned) of Lejjun.

7) [line 13] DIKDUKEI MITZVOS - the minute details of the Mitzvos


8) [line 1] KUSI CHAVER
A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status, which was not withheld from the Kusim.

9a) [line 3] RAVCHA SHAVIK - he left space [above the line on which he signed]
b) [line 3] L'MAN D'KASHISH MINEI - for someone who is older than he

10) [line 7] KULCHEM - lit. all of you
If a husband instructs a number of men to write a Get for his wife using the words, "I want *all of you* to write a Get for my wife," the Mishnah (below, Daf 66b) rules that one man writes the Get while all of the others must sign it. We assume that his words reveal his intentions that only if all of them are involved in the making of the Get will it be valid. Therefore, if one of those who must sign dies after the Get was written but before he signs, the Get is invalid.

11) [line 16] MIFLAG PALIG - argues [with the ruling of Rebbi Elazar, and rules that a Get is valid even if two Kusi witnesses sign it]

12) [line 24] HEDYOT - a commoner
13) [line 24] KA PASIK V'SANI - [the Tana] states categorically [drawing no distinction between sales or gifts]

14a) [line 24] MECHER - a sale (e.g. of land)
b) [line 25] MATANAH - a gift (e.g. of land)
15) [line 25] MI'KI YAHIV ZUZEI KAMAIHU, HU D'KANAH - he acquires [the land] at the time that he gives the money [to the seller] in front of them (the judges)

16) [line 27] LO HAVU MAR'EI NAFSHAIHU - they would not ruin their reputation
17) [line 28] B'MAI KA KANI? LAV B'HAI SHETARA? - With what does he acquire it? Is it not with that Shtar?

18) [line 29] CHASPA B'ALMA HU - it is merely a potsherd, i.e. it is valueless
19) [line 30] DINA D'MALCHUSA DINA - the laws of non-Jewish kingdoms are binding on all of their Jewish inhabitants

20) [line 32] V'HA LAV BENEI KERISUS NINHU - but they (the Nochrim) are not bound by [the laws of Kidushin when they get engaged nor by the laws of Gitin when] severing [the marriage bond]

21) [last line] MEZUYAF MI'TOCHO - a legal document that is invalidated by something within the document itself (such as the signature of a witness who was a relative or invalid in some other way, or who signed she'Lo Lishmah)

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