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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 42

ERUVIN 42, 43, 44 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa permits fruit that was taken outside the Techum be'Shogeg, but not be'Mezid. Rebbi Nechemyah says bi'Mekoman Ye'achlu, she'Lo bi'Mekoman Lo Ye'achlu'. Why can we not interpret Rav Nechemyah to mean that he forbids the fruit completely in their new location, but permits them if they were returned to their original place - even if they were returned on purpose?

(b) The Gemara therefore finds it necessary to amend the Beraisa in order to explain the Machlokes. According to the amendment, what is the Machlokes between Rebbi Nechemyah and the Tana Kama?

(c) The Gemara then attempts to refute this explanation, suggesting that both Tana'im agree that if the fruit is returned deliberately, it may not be carried outside four Amos (thereby proving Rav Papa's ruling wrong). What then, will be the Machlokes?

(d) How does the Gemara refute this explanation, to accept the second interpretation (quoted in b.), thereby re-instating Rav Papa's ruling?

2) How does one measure the Techum if one does not know exactly where it ends?


(a) If someone acquired his place of residence - before Shabbos - in a large field which had no fence, and gentiles subsequently built a fence around it, Shmuel restricts him to two thousand Amos (regarding walking). Why is this different than a large house of more than two thousand Amos, where the entire house is considered like four Amos?

(b) Does this conform with the opinion of Raban Gamliel, who rules in our Mishnah that someone who was forcibly taken to a large enclosure outside his Techum, may traverse the entire area, even if it is more than two thousand Amos long?

(c) What distinction does Shmuel make between carrying *within* the two thousand Amos and carrying *outside* them?

(d) Rav Huna is more stringent than Shmuel in this regard.
What does he hold?

(a) Why does Rav Huna not permit throwing even *beyond* two thousand Amos?

(b) Then why does he not at least permit carrying *within* two thousand Amos?

(c) Is a distinction ever made between carrying and throwing, and according to whom will that go?

Answers to questions



(a) Why did Rav Nachman tell Rav Huna not to argue with Shmuel with regard to carrying more than four Amos inside an area that was enclosed by non- Jews on Shabbos?

(b) What does the Beraisa say that conforms with Shmuel?

(c) Rav Huna answers (according to some texts) that the Beraisa means 'al Yedei Meshichah'. What does this mean?

(a) Rav Huna teaches us that if someone's Eruv ends in the middle of a courtyard, then he may only walk up to that point.
How does the Gemara amend Rav Huna's statement and what is the Chidush?

(b) Rav Nachman (who holds like Shmuel on the previous Amud where he permits throwing even more than four Amos, in a large field of more than two thousand Amos, when his Eruv ends in the middle), maintains that Rav Huna (who forbids it) will agree with him that if his Eruv ends on a roof, that he has the whole house.
What is he saying, and what is his reason?

(c) The Gemara suggests that the above Machlokes between Rav Nachman (and Shmuel) and Rav Huna, is in fact, equivalent to the Machlokes Tana'im in our Mishnah, that Rav Nachman's opinion is that of Raban Gamliel and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, who hold that, if someone was forcibly taken out of his Techum into a large enclosure in another town, he may traverse the entire enclosure (but will not conform with the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Akiva there.
What is the connection between the two Sugyos?

(d) How does the Gemara reject this, to prove that ...

  1. ... Raban Gamliel and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah may well *not* support Rav Nachman's opinion at all?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Akiva might even agree with him?
(a) Rav rules like Raban Gamliel and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah with regard to walking the entire enclosure, Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Akiva. They both agree however, that in a boat, the Halachah is like Raban Gamliel and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah. According to Rabah, this is because, when Shabbos entered, he acquired his residence within the walls of the boat.
What reason does Rebbi Zeira give for this unanimous ruling?

(b) What are the two differences between Rabah and Rebbi Zeira's reasons?

(c) Why does Rebbi Zeira not want to learn like Rabah?

(d) Why does Rabah not want to learn like Rebbi Zeira?

Answers to questions
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