(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Eruvin 28

ERUVIN 26-29 has been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel


(a) What is the definition of a Sheretz?

(b) How many kinds of Sheretz are there?

(a) According to the first Beraisa, birds are considered 'Gidulei Karka'.
From what were they created, and what makes them 'Gidulei Karka'?

(b) The Gemara goes on to explain that the Machlokes between the two Beraisos is based on whether the *second* 'K'lal' is to be taken literally (the opinion of the first Beraisa, which permits the purchase of birds), or the *first* (which forbids it).

  1. How does the first Beraisa learn?
  2. And how does the second Beraisa learn?
(a) Cress, purslane (Chalaglugos) and coriander may be used as an Eruv, but not young crops or Kafni'os (a poor-quality date). To reconcile the inclusion of coriander in the list of what is permissible, with a Beraisa (which precludes it), the Gemara establishes the case by someone who already has children.
What are the Gemara's other two answers?

(b) How do we initailly reconcile the above statement of Rav, precluding young crops from an Eruv, with Rav Yehudah, who quotes Rav as saying that hops and young crops may be used for an Eruv?

(a) Beans, barley and fenugrek that were sown for the herbage (the part of the fruit that grows underground) are Patur from Ma'aser, but Chayav, if one sowed them for their seeds (the main part that grows above ground).

(b) And why are cress and the rocket-plant (Uruga) Chayav in either case?

(c) How could Rav (above in 3b) change his mind, just because the people of Bavel ate young crops. Since when are the people of Bavel the majority of the world?

Answers to questions



(a) Rav Yehudah (on the previous Amud), maintains that the correct Berachah to recite over hops and young crops is 'Borei P'ri ha'Adamah.
Why did Rebbi Zeira (when he was feeling weak and sitting outside Rav Yehudah bar Ami's Beis ha'Medrash) maintain that the Berachah over hops should be 'Shehakol'?

(b) That child however, was of a third opinion (which is the Halachah). Quoting Rav Yehudah bar Ami, he ruled that, over hops one recites 'Borei P'ri ha'Adamah'.
What was wrong with Rebbi Zeira's contention?

(c) Then why does one recite a Shehakol over young crops?

(a) Kor (a kind of soft edible bark that grows annually on the date-palm, which later becomes hard) may be bought with Ma'aser Sheni money, but is not Metamei Tum'as Ochlin.
According to the Tana Kama, what is the Din of Kafni'os in these two regards, but they are Patur from Ma'asros?

(b) What does Rebbi Yehudah hold with regard to Kafni'os-dates?

(c) We try to reconcile this Beraisa with Rav, who said earlier that Kafni'os cannot be used for an Eruv, by establishing The Beraisa by 'Nischani'.
What are Nischani, and to which kind of dates is *Rav* then referring?

(d) What is the problem with this contention - from Rebbi Yehudah in b?

(a) The Gemara therefore retracts from the previous answer. The Beraisa too, is speaking about 'female' dates, and the Tana Kama renders them subject to Tum'as Ochlin for a different reason.
Why is that?

(b) Why does that not render them eligible to be used for an Eruv?

(c) And why are they Patur from Ma'aser?

(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa holds that bitter almonds are Chayav Ma'aser when they are small and Patur when they are fully-grown.
Why is that?

(b) And why is the Din of sweet almonds the reverse?

(c) The Halachah is like the Tana who exempts all types of bitter almonds from the Din of Ma'aser.
What is the reason for this?

(d) And what is the reason of the third opinion, which obligates even fully- grown ones to be Ma'asered? What can one do with fully-grown bitter almonds?

(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa that we quoted earlier rules that Kor is not subject to Tum'as Ochlin. Rebbi Yehudah says 'Harei Hu ke'Eitz le'Chol Devarav'. They seem to be saying the same thing. We initially think that they argue about if one cooked and treated the bark, in which case, the Tana Kama contends that it becomes subject to Tum'as Ochlin, and Rebbi Yehudah holds that it does not.
On what grounds does the Gemara reject this suggestion?

(b) What is their Machlokes, according to the Gemara's conclusion?

(c) Rav holds like the Chachamim, with regard to the Berachah over Kor, and Shmuel, like Rebbi Yehudah.
What proof does Shmuel bring for Rav from a radish?

(d) On what grounds does the Gemara reject this proof?

(a) What quantity of hops is needed for an Eruv?

(b) What quantity of young crops are needed for an Eruv?

(c) What is the common gauge for all commodities used for an Eruv?

(a) Why was the Gemara surprised at Rav Chilkiya bar Tuvi, when he said that one can use 'Kalya' for an Eruv?

(b) What he really meant was Yarka de'Kalya.
What is 'Yarka de'Kalya', and how much of it is needed for an Eruv?

(c) What quantity of wet beans is needed for an Eruv?

(d) How do we reconcile Rebbi Yanai's ruling that one may use raw beets for an Eruv, with Rav Chisda's statement that uncooked beets killed a man?

Answers to questions
Next daf

For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,