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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 19

ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) What is the initial difference between someone who was sentenced to death by a human king, and someone who was sentenced to death by Hashem (or by his emissaries, the Beis-Din)?

(b) What two additional stages are said with regard to the latter?

(a) What do we learn Pasuk in Tehilim "Gam Berachos Ya'ateh Moreh"?

(b) What does Resh Lakish learn Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Yazt'u ve'Ra'u be'Figrei ha'Anashim ha'Posh'im Bi"?

(c) How do we reconcile these two Pesukim?

(d) The Gemara proves this from Resh Lakish's second statement, where he compares Jewish sinners to the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav.
What Kal va'Chomer does he make, and what is the Gemara's proof re?

(a) What does Resh Lakish learn Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "ke'Felach ha'Rimon Rakasech"?

(b) In light of what he wrote earlier (in 2d), how does he explain the Pasuk in Tehilim "Ovrei be'Emek ha'Bacha"?

(c) Which type of Jewish sinner *does* remain in Gehinom, and why is that?

(d) Why does Rav Kahana disagree with Resh Lakish's interpretation of "ve'Yatz'u ve'Rau ... ha'Posh'im Bi"?

(a) What do we learn two Pesukim "ve'Yardu Kol Asher Lahem Chayim She'olah" (Korach) and "mi'Beten She'ol Shiva'ti" (Yonah)?

(b) Where is the third entrance to Gehinom?

(c) According to others, the smoke that rises from between the two date- palms in the valley of Ben Hinom are indicative of an entrance to Gehinom. Why did Rebbi Yonasan ben Elazar not include this in his list of three entrances, to make it four?

(a) What do the following have in common: She'ol, Avadon, Be'er Shachas, Bor She'on, Tit ha'Yaven, Tzalmaves and Eretz ha'Tachtis?

(b) Why did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi omit from this list ...

  1. ... Gehinom,
  2. ... Tofteh
What do these mean?
6) The entrance to Gan Eden is either in Beis Sha'an (in Eretz Yisrael), or in Beis Garam (in Arabia), or in Dumaskin (in between the Rivers) or in either Ever Yemina or Horpania (in Bavel). What makes the Gemara think that it is particularly in these places?


(a) Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah gives the Shiur between the Deyumdin as four teams of cows (each one, one and two-thirds Amos wide) that are tied and not loose. Is tied a Kula or a Chumra?

(b) Having said 'tied', why does he need to add 'not loose'?

(c) And what does he mean when he continues 'Achas Nichneses, ve'Achas Yotzes'? Is this a Kula or a Chumra?

Answers to questions



(a) The length of the head plus most of the cow is two Amos.
What is its width?

(b) The Beraisa gives the Shiur of between the Deyumdin, according to Rebbi Meir, as being approximately ten Amos, and according to Rebbi Yehudah, approximately thirteen or fourteen Amos.
Why does Rebbi Meir say *approximately* ten Amos, when according to him, it is *exactly* ten Amos?

(c) Rebbi Meir in our Mishnah, requires four ordinary boards, besides the four Deyumdin. If the well is exactly eight Amos in diameter, he agrees with Rebbi Yehudah that this is *not* necessary. Why is that?

(d) And why does Rebbi Yehudah agree with Rebbi Meir that by a well of twelve Amos, it *is*?

(a) Abaye asked Rabah 'He'erich bi'Deyumdin le'Rebbi Meir, ke'Shiur Deyumdin, Mahu?
What exactly, was he asking him?

(b) Why did the Gemara think that it had a proof from our Mishnah, which writes 'Mutar Leharchik ... u'Vilevad she'Yarbeh be'Pasin'? Why does this Lashon imply extending the length the Deyumdin more than it does adding boards?

(c) How does the Gemara refute this proof?

(d) What does the second Lashon hold?

(a) Rebbi Yehudah mentions nothing about adding boards, and this prompts Abaye to ask whether, if the area is more than thirteen and a third Amos, it is better to add boards, or to lengthen the Deyumdin.
What are the two sides to the Sha'aleh?

(b) Why can we not resolve the Sha'aleh Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehudah differentiates between a pen and a courtyard etc., and Pasei Bira'os (which the Rabbanan attempt to compare - to permit an area of even more than a Beis Sasayim) with the words 'Zu Mechitzah, ve'Eilu Pasin'?
Does this not imply that by a large area, Rebbi Yehudah advocates adding boards rather than extending the length of the Deyumdin?

(a) Abaye also asked Rabah whether a mound that rises ten Tefachim within four Amos can serve as a Deyumad or not.
What Din does it have with regard to Shabbos?

(b) What will be the Din if its gradient is less steep than that - with regard to the Din of Deyumdin?

(c) According to Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah, even a *round* stone can serve as a Deyumad. Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar concedes that a square stone can, but he argues by a round one.
What is their Machlokes?

(d) How will this resolve Abaye's Sha'aleh in a.?

(a) Abaye also asked Rabah whether a Chitzas ha'Kanim can serve as a Deyumad or not.
What is a Chitzas ha'Kanim, and what is Abaye's Sha'aleh?

(b) What is the alternative explanation of the Chitzas ha'Kanim which the Beraisa permits?

(c) Then what is the Chidush? Is this not the same as a tree, also mentioned by the Beraisa?

13) If Chitzas ha'Kanim in the Beraisa refers to canes spaced at intervals of less than three Tefachim, why might a bunch of canes joined below not serve as a Deyumad? Why might it be worse than a *square* Deyumad, where we say 'Ro'in'?

Answers to questions
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